Recent Advances in Analytical Techniques

Volume 1

by

Atta-ur-Rahman, Sibel A. Ozkan, Rida Ahmed

DOI: 10.2174/97816810844731170101
eISBN: 978-1-68108-447-3, 2017
ISBN: 978-1-68108-448-0
ISSN: 2542-5617 (Print)
ISSN: 2542-5625 (Online)



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Recent Advances in Analytical Techniques is a collection of updates in techniques used in chemical analysis. This vol...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Preface

- Pp. i-ii (2)

Atta -ur- Rahman, Sibel A. Ozkan and Rida Ahmed

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iii

Atta -ur- Rahman

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Recent Advances in Unique Sample Preparation Techniques for Biological and Environmental Analysis

- Pp. 1-53 (53)

Akira Namera and Takeshi Saito

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New Materials Employment in the Electrochemical Sensors Development

- Pp. 54-108 (55)

Arnaldo C. Pereira, Daniela N. Silva, Débora A. R. Moreira and Juliana F. Giarola

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Monitoring Circulating Tumor Cells by In Vivo Flow Cytometry in Cancer Therapy

- Pp. 109-123 (15)

Xunbin Wei, Yuanzhen Suo, Pengfei Hai and Xi Zhu

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Advances in Glow Discharge Spectroscopy for Depth Profile Analytical Applications

- Pp. 124-140 (17)

Lara Lobo and Rosario Pereiro

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Recent Advances and Challenges for Beer Volatile Characterization Based on Gas Chromatographic Techniques

- Pp. 141-199 (59)

Cátia Martins, Adelaide Almeida and Sílvia M. Rocha

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Recent Advances in Nano Photodynamic Therapy

- Pp. 200-223 (24)

Ufana Riaz, S. M. Ashraf and Juraj Bujdak

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Subject Index

- Pp. 224-232 (9)

Atta -ur- Rahman

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Preface

Recent advances in analytical techniques have led to the development of effective strategies for rapid separation of complex mixtures with high resolution and their identification. The present 1st volume of the book series “Recent Advances in Analytical Techniques” is a compilation of six outstanding reviews, written by the leading researchers in the field. Each review is focused on an important aspect of analytical techniques including sample preparation, development of electronic sensors, in vivo monitoring of tumor cells, advances in glow discharge spectroscopy, characterization of volatiles using gas chromatography and application of nanomaterials in biomedical applications. Since many contaminants present in crude samples can interfere during the analysis, it is critically important to find new sample preparation strategies which are efficient and practical. Namera and Saito have discussed conventional and new techniques for sample preparation to analyze biological, food and environmental substances in chapter 1.

In chapter 2, Pereira et al. present the use of new materials used in the development of electrochemical sensors. The application of new types of electrochemical sensors in analytical chemistry has increased recently due to their numerous advantages such as high sensitivity, selectivity, stability, low cost and use in simple instrumentation. They can be applied specifically in the analysis of clinical and environmental samples to provide higher reactivity and selectivity. Promising organic and inorganic materials have been used as electrochemical sensors such as composites based on graphene and carbon nanotubes, Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIP) and/or Ionically Imprinted Polymers (IIP). Some inorganic compounds such as nanoparticles of noble metals and metal oxides have also been applied as modifiers of electrodes to enhance their electrochemical properties or to increase the surface area of electrodes.

In vivo flow cytometry is an emerging tool used to monitor circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in vivo. It is a non-invasive method, and allows monitoring of CTCs in their native biological environment. Wei et al. have discussed the basic principles of fluorescence based and photoacoustic based in vivo flow cytometry and reviewed a number of studies on cancer therapy using in vivo flow cytometry. Potential applications and disadvantages of in vivo flow cytometry in cancer therapy are also discussed.

Glow discharges (GDs) coupled to optical emission or to mass spectrometry have been widely investigated during the last three decades for a variety of direct solid analytical applications. The advances associated with GDs include low matrix effects, high sensitivity and resolution, and multi-elemental analysis. Lobo and Pereiro have discussed the basic principles of the use of GDs along with recent instrumental advances and applications for optical emission and mass spectrometry. GD time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been discussed in detail since it is promising in terms of high depth resolution, fast acquisition rates and time-gated detection. It has also shown a great potential in obtaining elemental and molecular information as well as in the characterization of advanced materials such as multilayers, thin film solar cells and polymers.

In the fifth chapter, Martin et al., have reviewed recent technological advancements in gas chromatography (GC) for the detection and identification of volatile constituents of beer. The analysis of beer volatile fraction is challenging due to the presence of CO2, and the diversity of chemical structures found in it with different polarities, volatilities, and a wide concentration range. It requires effective extraction techniques to recover the analytes of interest, while minimizing the production of artefacts during the extraction process. The advantages and disadvantages of different extraction techniques have been discussed along with significant improvements in the chromatographs (namely the multidimensional ones), detection systems, columns technology and algorithms that contribute to the reduction of analysis time, making the methods more expeditious and user-friendly.

Nanomaterials have been investigated for a number of biomedical applications such as drug delivery, biosensors, tissue engineering, and bio-imaging. During the past few decades, several life threatening diseases such as cancers and some common bacterial infections have been treated using photodynamic therapy (PDT). It is based on the photochemical reactions between light and tumour tissues through photosensitizing agents. Riaz et al. have reviewed the present applications and future prospects of the various materials developed as photodynamic therapeutic agents in the last chapter.

We are deeply grateful to all the authors for their excellent contributions which should be of wide interest to the readers. We are also grateful to Mr. Mahmood Alam (Director Publications) and his excellent team comprising Mr. Shehzad Naqvi (Senior Manager Publications) and Mr. Omer Shafi (Assistant Manager Publications) for their untiring efforts.

Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS
Kings College, University of Cambridge,
Cambridge,
UK

Sibel A. Ozkan
Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Faculty of Pharmacy, Ankara University,
06560 Yenimahalle/Ankara,
Turkey

Rida Ahmed
TCM and Ethnomedicine Innovation & Development Laboratory, School of Pharmacy,
Hunan University of Chinese Medicine,
Changsha 410208, P.R. China

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Atta-ur-Rahman
Kings College
University of Cambridge
Cambridge
UK


Sibel A. Ozkan
Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences
Ankara University
06560 Yenimahalle/Ankara
Turkey


Rida Ahmed
TCM and Ethnomedicine Innovation & Development Laboratory, School of Pharmacy
Hunan University of Chinese Medicine
Changsha 410208
P.R. China




Contributor(s):
Adelaide Almeida
Departamento de Biologia & CESAM
Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário Santiago
3810-193 Aveiro
Portugal


Akira Namera
Department of Forensic Medicine
Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University
Hiroshima
Japan


Arnaldo C. Pereira
Departamento de Ciências Naturais
Universidade Federal de São João del Rei, 36301-160
São João del Rei, MG
Brasil


Cátia Martins
Departamento de Química & QOPNA
Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário Santiago
3810-193 Aveiro
Portugal
/
Departamento de Biologia & CESAM
Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário Santiago
3810-193 Aveiro
Portugal


Daniela N. Silva
Departamento de Ciências Naturais
Universidade Federal de São João del Rei, 36301-160
São João del Rei, MG
Brasil


Débora A.R. Moreira
Departamento de Ciências Naturais
Universidade Federal de São João del Rei, 36301-160
São João del Rei, MG
Brasil


Juliana F. Giarola
Instituto de Química
Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-970
Campinas – SP
Brasil


Juraj Bujdak
Comenius University in Bratislava
Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
842 15 Bratislava
Slovakia
/
Institute of Inorganic Chemistry Slovak Academy of Science
Bratislava
Slovakia


Lara Lobo
Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry
Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo
33006 Oviedo
Spain


Pengfei Hai
Department of Biomedical Engineering
Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis
Missouri
USA


Rosario Pereiro
Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry
Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo
33006 Oviedo
Spain


Sílvia M. Rocha
Departamento de Química & QOPNA
Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário Santiago
3810-193 Aveiro
Portugal


S.M. Ashraf
Materials Research Laboratory
Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia
New Delhi-110025
India


Takeshi Saito
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine
Tokai University School of Medicine
Kanagawa
Japan


Ufana Riaz
Materials Research Laboratory
Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia
New Delhi-110025
India


Xi Zhu
Med-X Research Institute and School of Biomedical Engineering
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Shanghai
China


Xunbin Wei
Med-X Research Institute and School of Biomedical Engineering
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Shanghai
China


Yuanzhen Suo
Med-X Research Institute and School of Biomedical Engineering
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Shanghai
China




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