Importance of Biomarkers in Heart Failure: Classic and New Aspects
- Pp. 309-340 (32)Juan Antonio Vílchez, Pablo Perez-Cañadas, Francisco Marín and Jordi Ordóñez-Llanos
Despite wide range of biomarkers studied in heart failure (HF), only natriuretic peptides have become standard-of-care biomarkers in HF and are currently the elected biomarkers that have crossed the field of research commonly used in daily practice. To achieve this knowledge, many biomarkers related to different pathophysiological effects in HF have been studied, being these pathways: myocardial stretch, myocyte injury, extracellular matrix and fibrotic state, inflammation, renal dysfunction, neurohormonal activation, and oxidative stress. The aim of this review was to summarize the published data about biomarkers studied in HF, focusing on data from randomized prospective clinical trials and large community-based cohorts. We also reviewed the new trends in those biomarkers and their application on this pathology.