Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering

Book Series: Frontiers in Biomaterials

Volume 4

by

Mehdi Razavi

DOI: 10.2174/97816810853641170401
eISBN: 978-1-68108-536-4, 2017
ISBN: 978-1-68108-537-1
ISSN: 2468-0168 (Print)
ISSN: 2352-3921 (Online)



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This volume reviews the published knowledge about bioactive composites, protein scaffolds and hydrogels. Chapters also detail the prod...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i-ii (2)

Julian R. Jones

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Preface

- Pp. iii

Mehdi Razavi

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iv-v (2)

Mehdi Razavi

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Synthetic Biopolymers

- Pp. 1-48 (48)

Mahdis Hesami

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Polymer-Based Biocomposites

- Pp. 49-89 (41)

Yasemin Budama-Kilinc, Rabia Cakir-Koc, Ilke Kurt, Kubra Gozutok, Busra Ozkan, Burcu Ozkan and Ibrahim Isildak

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Bioactive ACP-Based Polymeric Biocomposites

- Pp. 90-142 (53)

Drago Skrtic and Joseph M. Antonucci

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Hydrogels: Types, Structure, Properties, and Applications

- Pp. 143-169 (27)

Amirsalar Khandan, Hossein Jazayeri, Mina D. Fahmy and Mehdi Razavi

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Metallic Scaffolds

- Pp. 170-194 (25)

Mehdi Razavi

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Gradient Fabrication

- Pp. 195-215 (21)

Nasim Kiaie and Mehdi Razavi

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In Vivo and In Vitro Experiments for the Evaluation of Porous Biomaterials

- Pp. 216-243 (28)

Rabia Cakir-Koc, Yasemin Budama-Kilinc, Burak Ozdemir, Zeynep Kaya, Mehtap Sert and Neslinur Ozcelik

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Immune Aspects of Scaffold Design

- Pp. 244-255 (12)

Nasrin Mokhtari, Hamidreza Mokhtari and Mehdi Razavi

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Future Perspectives of Porous Scaffolds

- Pp. 256-273 (18)

Farnaz Naghizadeh

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Subject Index

- Pp. 274-289 (16)

Mehdi Razavi

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Foreword

Biomaterials have come a long way since the first total joint replacements, which were introduced at a time when biomaterials were selected for their corrosion resistance. Orthopaedic surgeons initially selected materials which would stimulate the least reaction from the body. Materials used were “nearly inert” metal alloys and polymers. Total joint replacements revolutionised surgery and were life changing for patients. However, such materials are eventually rejected by the body, not in the same way as transplants, but because a thin layer of scar tissue forms around them, isolating them from the body, eventually causing the implant to be forced out of position. This became more problematic when clinicians attempted to repair or restore other parts of the skeleton or other tissues.

In 1969 (published in 1971), the invention of Bioglass® by Larry Hench, then at the University of Florida in Gainesville (USA), changed the face of orthopaedics. Bioglass was the first synthetic material that was found to bond with bone (no scar tissue). It is also biodegradable. However, it was not until the mid-1990s when the first Bioglass synthetic bone graft for bone regeneration reached the market. Now, it has been used in more than 1.5 million patients. Between the concept and clinical use of Bioglass, other bioactive ceramics reached clinicians first, such as synthetic hydroxyapatite, which is similar to bone mineral and also bonds with bone, albeit slower than Bioglass. This triggered the use of other calcium phosphate variants, such as tricalcium phosphate.

I mentioned that bioceramics can be biodegradable. This is possible by dissolution (also happens in water) or by cellular action (e.g. macrophages or osteoclasts). Hench termed the combination of biodegradation and bioactivity as 3rd Generation Biomaterials in a Science review in 2002.

Biomaterials are now being designed to deal with the body’s own healing for many different clinical indications. To work well they must be used as temporary templates or scaffolding, specifically designed for the tissue that is being repaired. Scaffolds made of bioactive and biodegradable materials could present a 4th Generation if they are able to stimulate another course of action, e.g. blood vessel growth or bearing load. They can be labelled as 5th Generation, if they do both.

Remarkably, biomaterials have now gone beyond bone and orthopaedics. Almost every tissue in the body has received research attention, with clinical products at various stages of development. In this book, scaffolds for nerves, cardiovascular system, liver, kidney and skin applications are described in addition to bone, cartilage and dental. The translation of new devices from concept to clinic is a great challenge for biomaterials researchers, one that is certainly not lost on the authors of this book.

This book begins with important, and perhaps more conventional biodegradable materials, which are the biodegradable polymers that are used in sutures. Bioceramics are usually too brittle for load bearing structures that must take cyclic load, therefore, in this book they have been included within composites with polymers as the matrix. Metals are now also being made to be biodegradable.

Scaffolds are often designed to mimic the macrostructure of the host tissue, with blood vessels growing through the pore networks to feed the new tissue. Hydrogels are another important type of polymers which mimic the extracellular matrix of tissues. Hydrogels are particularly beneficial for cell types that exist in a 3D gel-like environment. Their unique property is their ability to transport nutrients through their watery networks to cells.

Scaffolds can be employed as an implant on their own, or can be seeded with cells (e.g. stem cells) in vitro prior to implantation, which is termed as tissue engineering.

The concept of bioactive, biodegradable and strong scaffolds is an important area in healthcare. The UK Government highlighted Eight Great Technologies in 2013, suggesting great need and opportunity for growth. Two of those are Advanced Materials and Regenerative Medicine. When new medical devices are created in the laboratory, they must be translated to clinic. In order to deliver these scaffolds, new manufacturing methods are also needed, such as Additive Manufacturing and 3D printing, which can create the required architectures and also promote reproducibility in large numbers.

Other aspects of technology transfer are the need to pass tests prescribed by regulatory bodies. The devices often highlight ambiguities in the tests, so new tests have to be developed. There is a large area of research in tests that can more closely assess the in vivo situation. While researchers often study how tissue specific cells respond to scaffolds, an important area often neglected is that how immune cells respond.

This new book provides a basic level of understanding of all of the above topics, starting from scaffold design; some key biomaterials; manufacturing techniques; to technology transfer aspects that include testing scaffolds both in vivo and in vitro. It provides the necessary foundation of science and technology. For the experienced researcher the book provides a comprehensive overview of the important current topics in the field. Happy reading.

Julian R. Jones
Department of Materials,
Imperial College London,
South Kensington Campus,
London SW7 2AZ,
UK,
E-mail: julian.r.jones@imperial.ac.uk


Preface

Tissue engineering aims to regenerate damaged tissues by using a 3-dimensional bioscaffold, cells, biomolecules and growth factors. The success of this strategy depends on the biomaterials selection, design and development techniques of bioscaffolds and evaluation methods. Although, this field is new, upward advances are being made in order to be translated to patients. Therefore, it was found that an appropriate book which discusses the novel 3D bioscaffold designs and experimental procedures could be helpful for students and researchers. This book reviews the published resources and discusses the bioscaffolding materials, used techniques and presents the production parameters to clarify the evaluation protocols for analysis or testing. This book covers the chapters by leading bioengineers, biologists, dentists and clinicians. Therefore, the text has basic information that will be of use to bioengineers, clinicians and surgeons who deal with the tissue engineering strategies. This is a reference book for undergraduate and graduate courses and clinical laboratories. Finally, the editor thanks for the support of all the contributors and the publisher who made the publication of this book possible.

Mehdi Razavi
Department of Radiology, School of Medicine
Stanford University, Palo Alto, California 94304
USA
E-mail: mrazavi2659@gmail.com

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Mehdi Razavi
Department of Radiology, School of Medicine
Palo Alto, California 94304
USA




Contributor(s):
Amirsalar Khandan
Young Researchers and Elite Club, Khomeinishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University
Isfahan
Iran


Burak Ozdemir
Faculty of Chemistry and Metallurgical, Department of Bioengineering, Yildiz Technical University
Davutpasa St. No.127, 34210 Esenler, Istanbul
Turkey


Burcu Ozkan
Faculty of Chemistry and Metallurgical, Department of Bioengineering, Yildiz Technical University
Davutpasa St. No.127, 34210 Esenler, Istanbul
Turkey


Busra Ozkan
Faculty of Chemistry and Metallurgical, Department of Bioengineering, Yildiz Technical University
Davutpasa St. No.127, 34210 Esenler, Istanbul
Turkey


Drago Skrtic
Volpe Research Center, American Dental Association Foundation, Gaithersburg
Maryland
Unites States


Farnaz Naghizadeh
Biomedical Engineering Faculty, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic)
Tehran
Iran


Hamidreza Mokhtari
Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology
Isfahan 84156-83111
Iran


Hossein Jazayeri
Marquette University, School of Dentistry
Milwaukee, WI 53233
USA


Ibrahim Isildak
Faculty of Chemistry and Metallurgical, Department of Bioengineering, Yildiz Technical University
Davutpasa St. No.127, 34210 Esenler, Istanbul
Turkey


Ilke Kurt
Faculty of Chemistry and Metallurgical, Department of Bioengineering, Yildiz Technical University
Davutpasa St. No.127, 34210 Esenler, Istanbul
Turkey


Joseph M. Antonucci
Biomaterials Group, Biosystems and Biomaterials Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg
Maryland
United States


Kubra Gozutok
Faculty of Chemistry and Metallurgical, Department of Bioengineering, Yildiz Technical University
Davutpasa St. No.127, 34210 Esenler, Istanbul
Turkey


Mahdis Hesami
Amirkabir University of Technology
Tehran
Iran


Mehdi Razavi
Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto
California 94304
USA
/
Brunel Institute for Bioengineering, Brunel University London, Uxbridge
London UB8 3PH
UK


Mehtap Sert
Faculty of Chemistry and Metallurgical, Department of Bioengineering, Yildiz Technical University
Davutpasa St. No.127, 34210 Esenler, Istanbul
Turkey


Mina D. Fahmy
Marquette University, School of Dentistry
Milwaukee, WI 53233
USA


Nasim Kiaie
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology
Tehran, 15875
Iran


Nasrin Mokhtari
Department of Dentistry, Khorasgan University of Dentistry Sciences
Isfahan 81551-39998
Iran


Neslinur Ozcelik
Faculty of Chemistry and Metallurgical, Department of Bioengineering, Yildiz Technical University
Davutpasa St. No.127, 34210 Esenler, Istanbul
Turkey


Rabia Cakir-Koc
Faculty of Chemistry and Metallurgical, Department of Bioengineering, Yildiz Technical University
Davutpasa St. No.127, 34210 Esenler, Istanbul
Turkey


Yasemin Budama-Kilinc
Faculty of Chemistry and Metallurgical, Department of Bioengineering, Yildiz Technical University
Davutpasa St. No.127, 34210 Esenler, Istanbul
Turkey


Zeynep Kaya
Faculty of Chemistry and Metallurgical, Department of Bioengineering, Yildiz Technical University
Davutpasa St. No.127, 34210 Esenler, Istanbul
Turkey




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