Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine

Book Series: Frontiers in Biomaterials

Volume 5

by

Mehdi Razavi

DOI: 10.2174/97816810857841170501
eISBN: 978-1-68108-578-4, 2017
ISBN: 978-1-68108-579-1
ISSN: 2468-0168 (Print)
ISSN: 2352-3921 (Online)



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Tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field which involves the fabrication of tissues by using a porous protein scaffold, cells a...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i-ii (2)

Julian R. Jones

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Preface

- Pp. iii

Mehdi Razavi

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iv-v (2)

Mehdi Razavi

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Stem Cell-based Modalities: From Basic Biology to Integration and Regeneration

- Pp.

Ruodan Xu, Wenjin Shi, Pingping Nie, Runzhe Chen, Ning Li, Mehdi Razavi, Wanting Niu and Abdulmonem Alshihri

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Dental Tissue Engineering and Regeneration; Perspectives on Stem Cells, Bioregulators, and Porous Scaffolds

- Pp. 36-76 (41)

Perihan Selcan Gungor-Ozkerim and Abdulmonem Alshihri

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Cardiovascular System Tissue Engineering

- Pp. 77-99 (23)

Kai Zhu, Margaux Duchamp, Julio Aleman, Wanting Niu, Abdulmonem Alshihri, Yu Shrike Zhang and Ming Yan

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Liver and Kidney Tissue Engineering

- Pp. 100-111 (12)

Fatemeh Khatami, Mehdi Razavi and Yi-Nan Zhang

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Skin Substitutes: Current Applications and Challenges

- Pp. 112-130 (19)

Fatemeh Khatami, Reza M. Robati, Monireh Torabi-Rahvar and Wanting Niu

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Stem Cells and Scaffolds: Strategies for Musculoskeletal System Tissue Engineering

- Pp. 131-169 (39)

Mahboubeh Nabavinia, Ding Weng, Yi-Nan Zhang and Wanting Niu

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Subject Index

- Pp. 170-181 (12)

Mehdi Razavi

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Foreword

Biomaterials have come a long way since the first total joint replacements, which were introduced at a time when biomaterials were selected for their corrosion resistance. Orthopaedic surgeons initially selected materials which would stimulate the least reaction from the body. Materials used were “nearly inert” metal alloys and polymers. Total joint replacements revolutionised surgery and were life changing for patients. However, such materials are eventually rejected by the body, not in the same way as transplants, but because a thin layer of scar tissue forms around them, isolating them from the body, eventually causing the implant to be forced out of position. This became more problematic when clinicians attempted to repair or restore other parts of the skeleton or other tissues.

In 1969 (published in 1971), the invention of Bioglass® by Larry Hench, then at the University of Florida in Gainesville (USA), changed the face of orthopaedics. Bioglass was the first synthetic material that was found to bond with bone (no scar tissue). It is also biodegradable. However, it was not until the mid-1990s when the first Bioglass synthetic bone graft for bone regeneration reached the market. Now, it has been used in more than 1.5 million patients. Between the concept and clinical use of Bioglass, other bioactive ceramics reached clinicians first, such as synthetic hydroxyapatite, which is similar to bone mineral and also bonds with bone, albeit slower than Bioglass. This triggered the use of other calcium phosphate variants, such as tricalcium phosphate.

I mentioned that bioceramics can be biodegradable. This is possible by dissolution (also happens in water) or by cellular action (e.g. macrophages or osteoclasts). Hench termed the combination of biodegradation and bioactivity as 3rd Generation Biomaterials in a Science review in 2002.

Biomaterials are now being designed to deal with the body’s own healing for many different clinical indications. To work well they must be used as temporary templates or scaffolding, specifically designed for the tissue that is being repaired. Scaffolds made of bioactive and biodegradable materials could present a 4th Generation if they are able to stimulate another course of action, e.g. blood vessel growth or bearing load. They can be labelled as 5th Generation, if they do both.

Remarkably, biomaterials have now gone beyond bone and orthopaedics. Almost every tissue in the body has received research attention, with clinical products at various stages of development. In this book, scaffolds for nerves, cardiovascular system, liver, kidney and skin applications are described in addition to bone, cartilage and dental. The translation of new devices from concept to clinic is a great challenge for biomaterials researchers, one that is certainly not lost on the authors of this book.

This book begins with important, and perhaps more conventional biodegradable materials, which are the biodegradable polymers that are used in sutures. Bioceramics are usually too brittle for load bearing structures that must take cyclic load, therefore, in this book they have been included within composites with polymers as the matrix. Metals are now also being made to be biodegradable.

Scaffolds are often designed to mimic the macrostructure of the host tissue, with blood vessels growing through the pore networks to feed the new tissue. Hydrogels are another important type of polymers which mimic the extracellular matrix of tissues. Hydrogels are particularly beneficial for cell types that exist in a 3D gel-like environment. Their unique property is their ability to transport nutrients through their watery networks to cells.

Scaffolds can be employed as an implant on their own, or can be seeded with cells (e.g. stem cells) in vitro prior to implantation, which is termed as tissue engineering.

The concept of bioactive, biodegradable and strong scaffolds is an important area in healthcare. The UK Government highlighted Eight Great Technologies in 2013, suggesting great need and opportunity for growth. Two of those are Advanced Materials and Regenerative Medicine. When new medical devices are created in the laboratory, they must be translated to clinic. In order to deliver these scaffolds, new manufacturing methods are also needed, such as Additive Manufacturing and 3D printing, which can create the required architectures and also promote reproducibility in large numbers.

Other aspects of technology transfer are the need to pass tests prescribed by regulatory bodies. The devices often highlight ambiguities in the tests, so new tests have to be developed. There is a large area of research in tests that can more closely assess the in vivo situation. While researchers often study how tissue specific cells respond to scaffolds, an important area often neglected is that how immune cells respond.

This new book provides a basic level of understanding of all of the above topics, starting from scaffold design; some key biomaterials; manufacturing techniques; to technology transfer aspects that include testing scaffolds both in vivo and in vitro. It provides the necessary foundation of science and technology. For the experienced researcher the book provides a comprehensive overview of the important current topics in the field. Happy reading.

Dr. Julian R. Jones
Department of Materials
Imperial College London
South Kensington Campus
London SW7 2AZ
UK
E-mail: julian.r.jones@imperial.ac.uk


Preface

Regenerative medicine an umbrella term given to varied approaches of replacing or repairing damaged or diseased organs offers a radical new method for the treatment of injury and disease. Regenerative medicine promises a more permanent solution other than the existing pharmaceutical products, and with the introduction of the first few achievements in the field, it progresses from the realms of science to the surgery. In future, we hope to further extend the scope from skin and bone to liver and heart; damaged organs are being made to regrow, or to be replaced with viable alternatives using stem cells. Although, our understanding of stem cell biology has increased rapidly over the last few years, the apparently tremendous therapeutic potential of stem cells has not yet been realized. To this end, many researchers continue to work in areas such as stem cell niche, reprogramming, nanotechnology, biomimetics and 3D bioprinting. Regenerative medicine is highly cross-disciplinary and serves as a bridge between the basic science to bioengineering and clinical medicine. The objective of this book was to capture and consolidate these research in identifying problems, offering solutions and providing ideas to excite further innovation in the stem cell biology and regenerative medicine field to help scientists, engineers and clinicians to design treatments for traumatic injury or degenerative diseases. This book covers the chapters by leading biologists, engineers and clinicians and therefore, has fundamental information that will be of use to all researchers dealing with the regenerative medicine strategies. In this book, recent advances in the basic knowledge of regenerative medicine involved in tissue damage and regeneration have been discussed with remarkable current progress in stem cell biology such that the vision of clinical tissue repair strategies is shown as a tangible reality. This is a reference book for undergraduate and graduate courses, bioengineers, medical students and clinical laboratories. Finally, the efforts of all the contributors and the publisher are appreciated.

Dr. Mehdi Razavi
Department of Radiology, School of Medicine
Stanford University, Palo Alto, California 94304
USA
E-mail: mrazavi2659@gmail.com

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Mehdi Razavi
Department of Radiology, School of Medicine
Palo Alto, California 94304
USA




Contributor(s):
Abdulmonem A. Alshihri
Department of Prosthetic and Biomaterial Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Saud University
Riyadh 11545
Saudi Arabia
/
Department of Restorative and Biomaterial Sciences, Harvard School of Dental Medicine
Boston 02115
USA


Ding Weng
Tissue Engineering Labs, VA Boston Healthcare System
Boston
USA
/
Department of Orthopedics, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School
Boston
USA
/
Department of Mechanical Engineering, State Key Lab of Tribology, Tsinghua University
Haidian Qu, Beijing Shi
China


Fatemeh Khatami
Skin Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Tehran
Iran


Julio Aleman
Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine
Winston Salem, NC
USA
/
Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine
Winston-Salem 27101, NC
USA


Kai Zhu
Biomaterials Innovation Research Center, Division of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School
Cambridge, MA
USA
/
Department of Cardiac Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University
Shanghai
China


Mahboubeh Nabavinia
Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cambridge
USA
/
Biomaterials Innovation Research Center, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School
Cambridge
USA
/
Chemical Engineering Department, Sahand University of Technology
Tabriz
Iran


Margaux Duchamp
Biomaterials Innovation Research Center, Division of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School
Cambridge, MA
USA
/
Department of Bioengineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
Lausanne 1015
Switzerland


Mehdi Razavi
Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto
California 94304
USA


Ming Yan
Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of life information science and instrument engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University
Hangzhou 310018
China


Monireh Torabi-Rahvar
Department of Cancer Immunotherapy and Regenerative Medicine, Breast Cancer Research Center
IBCRC, Tehran
Iran
/
Liver and Pancreatobiliary Diseases Research Center, Digestive Disease Research Institute
Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
Iran


Ning Li
State Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
Beijing 100005
China


Perihan Selcan Gungor-Ozkerim
Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cambridge, MA, 02139
USA


Pingping Nie
School of Life Sciences, Sichuan University
Chengdu 610005
China


Reza M. Robati
Skin Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Tehran
Iran


Ruodan Xu
Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 14
8000 Aarhus C
Denmark


Runzhe Chen
Department of Hematology and Oncology, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University
Nanjing 210009
China


Wanting Niu
Tissue Engineering Labs, VA Boston Healthcare System
Boston 02130
USA
/
Department of Orthopedics, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School
Boston, MA
USA


Wenjin Shi
School of Life Sciences, Sichuan University
Chengdu 610005
China


Yi-Nan Zhang
Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, 164 College Street
Toronto, ON, M5S 3G9
Canada


Yu Shrike Zhang
Biomaterials Innovation Research Center, Division of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School
Cambridge, MA
USA




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