Pediatric Orthodontics: Theory and Practice

Book Series: Recent Advances in Dentistry

Volume 2


George Litsas, D.D.S., M.Sc., Ph.D

DOI: 10.2174/97816810860951180201
eISBN: 978-1-68108-609-5, 2018
ISBN: 978-1-68108-610-1
ISSN: 2468-5038 (Print)
ISSN: 2468-5046 (Online)

Pediatric Orthodontics: Theory and Practice provides readers (practicing dentis...[view complete introduction]
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Craniofacial Growth

- Pp. 1-18 (18)

George Litsas


The biologic process that has an underlying control system at the cellular and tissue levels is called Morphogenesis. Two mechanisms combine to form the skeleton: intramemebranous ossification and endochondral ossification. It is in the latter that the vertebrae and long bones are formed, while intramembranous ossification is responsible for the cranial bones. While somatic and craniofacial development have been shown clearly to be associated, the growth of the craniofacial region – involving, as it does, interaction between growth sites adjacent to each other, each of which has a different pattern and grows at different times and at different rates, is highly complex. The purpose of this chapter with the question-answer format is to provide the basic concepts on craniofacial growth and development.

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