Alternative Approaches to Antimicrobials
- Pp. 111-157 (47)Ayhan Filazi and Begum Yurdakok-Dikmen
Historically, infectious diseases has been a major threat to human and other animals health and an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The introduction of antimicrobials in the first half of the twentieth century revolutionized medicine by substantially reducing morbidity and mortality rates from infectious diseases. Nevertheless, it was soon observed that bacteria could become resistant to antimicrobials, and resistant strains emerged shortly after the introduction of every new antimicrobial drug. Unfortunately, resistance is a natural and unavoidable consequence of antimicrobial use. For this reason, new antimicrobials are urgently needed, but so are additional approaches to protect the value of available antimicrobials. The discovery of a new antimicrobial is not an easy task where the scene is further complicated by a variety of interacting factors. In order to eliminate the spread of antimicrobial resistance, firstly, the inappropriate use should be reduced both in human and veterinary applications and alternative approaches should be considered. Until now, many alternatives, including plant-derived compounds, bacteriophages and phage lysins, probiotics, and into antimicrobial peptides from a variety of sources have been tested especially against resistant strains. These approaches are currently lacking in antimicrobial management, meanwhile, they have demonstrated considerable potential for application in other diseases. The review presents an insight into antimicrobials, particularly direct-food microbial, as well as other alternative products such as plant-derived compounds, bacteriophages and phage lysins, and antimicrobial peptides along with other alternative products, including novel approaches applicable to the field.