Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Humans and Domestic Animals

by

Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani, Alvimar José da Costa

DOI: 10.2174/97816810864391180101
eISBN: 978-1-68108-643-9, 2018
ISBN: 978-1-68108-644-6



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Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i-ii (2)
Italmar T. Navarro
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Preface

- Pp. iii-iv (2)
Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani and Alvimar Jose da Costa
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Dedication

- Pp. v
Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani and Alvimar Joseta da Cos
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Summary

- Pp. vi
Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani and Alvimar Jose da Costa
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List of Contributors

- Pp. vii-viii (2)
Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani and Alvimar Jose da Costa
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Toxoplasma gondii

- Pp. 1-12 (12)
Alessandra M.A. Ragozo
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Human Congenital Toxoplasmosis

- Pp. 13-60 (48)
Italmar T. Navarro, Regina Mitsuka–Bregano, Selwyn A. Headley, Jaqueline D. Capobiango, Inacio T. Inoue, Antonio M.B. Casella, Edna M.V. Reiche and Fabiana M.R. Lopes Mori
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Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Dogs

- Pp. 61-66 (6)
Lucilene G. Camossi, Daniel F.F. Cardia, Celso T.N. Suzuki, Jancarlo F. Gomes and Katia D.S. Bresciani
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Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Cats

- Pp. 67-74 (8)
Andre L. B. Galvao, Victor J. V. Rosseto, Breno C. Cruz, Weslen F. P. Teixeira, Alvimar J. da Costa and Katia D. S. Bresciani
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Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Ewes

- Pp. 75-81 (7)
Thais Rabelo dos Santos, Maerle Oliveira Maia, Alvimar Jose da Costa and Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani
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Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Pigs

- Pp. 82-95 (14)
Joao Luis Garcia
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Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Goats

- Pp. 96-104 (9)
Helenara Machado da Silva, Jesaias Ismael da Costa, Alvimar Jose da Costa and Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani
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Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Cattle

- Pp. 105-113 (9)
Thais Rabelo dos Santos, Maerle Oliveira Maia, Jancarlo Ferreira Gomes, Celso Tetsuo Nagase Suzuki, Alvimar Jose da Costa and Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani
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Subject Index

- Pp. 114-119 (6)
Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani and Alvimar Jose da Costa
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Foreword

Toxoplasmosis is a disease that has, as its etiologic agent, the protozoa Toxoplasma gondii. The disease is of cosmopolitan occurrence, being prevalent in humans and animals, with infection rates that vary with the geographical region, attaining 70-80% in some ecosystems, in different herds and human populations, with infection in most cases being unapparent.

Despite the importance of clinical toxoplasmosis in adults, with a wider variety of clinical signs and symptoms, due to the species affected and/or the strain of the parasite involved, the issue that is most delicate, and of greatest preoccupation, is gestational and congenital toxoplasmosis.

Since generally, this is a silent infection in the prospective mother or pregnant females, this preoccupation extends from the difficulty to diagnose maternal and fetal infections, including the few existing methods for fetal diagnosis, where most of these are invasive and frequently place the fetus at risk.

The objective of this book is not to establish a parallel between congenital infections in the different species, but to demonstrate the implications, damages and losses for each female considering the individual and collective aspects.

This book clearly describes and demonstrates the sanitary impacts of toxoplasmosis in the fetal impairment, during gestation via transplacental transmission, with impact on livestock, which can result in elevated losses to animal production, as well as on companion animals, where the loss of young animals affects emotionally the families involved. In addition, in humans, where the sequels and clinical signs, even retarded, are extremely serious, principally when there are neurological and ocular signs.

Based on the best scientific studies available, the authors have used their vast professional experience to demonstrate procedures, including those related to the aspects of management of toxoplasmosis that are still controversial in females from several species, as well as gestating and lactating mothers, using a realistic approach.

This publication is particularly timely at the moment when toxoplasmosis has been recognized as an important problem in humans and animals, when there is need for One Health, during which human health is directly related to animal health and the environment, and vice versa.

Whenever we write books, publish articles or present a paper, we must have in our minds, as clearly as possible, the affirmation of Carlyle Guerra de Macedo, who was the Director of Pan American Health Organization, relative to the responsibility of what is being published: “It must be remembered that behind each table, every report or every material examined, there are lives, there are people, there is suffering, waiting for our efforts and human solidarity”.

Above all, this book has this concern and responsibility. The chapters within this book are not only a collection of technical information acquired from existing literature, but are additionally, the results of years of work of the team involved with patients and communities.

Many of these have served to evaluate procedures and conducts as well as to experience orientations and formed the basis of this publication. Consequently, we have the expectation to demonstrate that each chapter was also written by the hands of patients and their communities, so that these are the main actors and authors of this book.

Italmar T. Navarro
Centro de Ciências Agrárias
Universidade Estadual de Londrina
Paraná
Brazil


Preface

This book focuses on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects, prevention and control of congenital Toxoplasma gondii infections in humans and domestic animals (pets and livestock). Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease. In humans, it is essential to aim for implementation of control programs, including preventive measures that promotes early diagnosis and appropriate indication of adequate antiparasitic treatments to pregnant women, being therefore able to diminish the seriousness of sequelae of toxoplasmosis in fetuses. Important aspects for control programs of congenital toxoplasmosis, and for maternal and neonatal screening of toxoplasmosis control programs, were reviewed. Additionally, based on this information, reproductive disorders such as abortion, neonatal mortality and prematurity due to infection by Toxoplasma gondii, may be more easily diagnosed by veterinarians, of both small and large animals medical clinics, in their routine daily care. Under the zoonotic aspect, health professionals may become aware of these clinical signs and take preventive measures for their control.

The book “Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Human and Domestic Animals” is a compilation of eight chapters, contributions of established researchers in the field, with content directed to the study of epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and control of congenital T. gondii infections in humans and domestic animals (pets and production).

In the first chapter, Dr. Ragozo has shed some light on the parasite, its life cycle, clinical signs, diagnosis and some epidemiological aspects of toxoplasmosis.

In the second chapter, Dr. Navarro and his colleagues discuss the epidemiology and impact of human congenital toxoplasmosis, pathogenesis, genotypic characterization, diagnosis, therapy, prevention and control.

Then, in the third chapter, Dr. Camossi and collaborators discuss reproductive problems on female dogs and emphasize the attention, which should be paid regarding occurrence of this parasite in canine populations.

In the fourth chapter, Dr. Galvão and colleagues describe the main manifestations, prevention and treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis in cats.

In the fifth chapter, Dr. Lopes and collaborators discuss the different reproductive alterations in sheep with toxoplasmosis and reinforce the possibility of sexual transmission of T. gondii in this animal species. The same authors, in the sixth chapter, demonstrate that congenital transmission of this disease in goats can result in disorders in the offspring (regardless of pregnancy stage), which can subsequently lead to severe losses or prejudice to descendants and their owners.

In the seventh chapter, Dr. Garcia discusses aspects related to parasite-host relationship between T. gondii and pigs, such as epidemiology, natural infection (congenital) and experimental infections, diagnosis, vaccines and prevention.

Finally, in the eighth chapter, Dr. Santos and colleagues describe the various aspects of congenital form and the importance of cattle on the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis.

The publication of this book would not have been possible without the sincere efforts of the authors of each chapter, and especially the staff at Bentham Science Publishers, giving their continuous support. Perhaps, of greater importance than the book and its many contributions, were the remarkable people that formed a unique collaborative team to make it happen.

Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani
Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária de Araçatuba
Unesp, Universidade Estadual Paulista
Araçatuba
Brasil

Alvimar José da Costa
Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias de Jaboticabal
Unesp, Universidade Estadual Paulista
Jaboticabal
Brasil

List of Contributors

Author(s):
Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani


Alvimar José da Costa




Contributor(s):
Alessandra Mara Alves Ragozo
Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu, Botucatu
São Paulo
Brasil


André Luiz Baptista Galvão
Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Jaboticabal
São Paulo
Brasil
/
UNIRP, Centro Universitário de Rio Preto
Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária
São José do Rio Preto
São Paulo, Brasil


Breno Cayeiro Cruz
Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
Centro de Pesquisas em Sanidade Animal Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias
Jaboticabal, São Paulo
Brasil


Celso Tetsuo Nagase Suzuki
Instituto de Computação (Laboratory of Image Data Science/LIDS)
Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp)
São Paulo
Brasil


Daniel Fontana Ferreira Cardia
UNICAMP, Universidade Estadual de Campinas
Instituto de Computação, Campinas
São Paulo
Brasil


Edna Maria Vissoci Reiche
UEL, Universidade Estadual de Londrina Professor, Departamento of Patologia
Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Londrina
Paraná
Brasil


Fabiana Maria Ruiz Lopes Mori
Unifil, Centro Universitário Filadélfia
Centro de Ciências Saúde, Londrina
Paraná
Brasil


Italmar Teodorico Navarro
UEL, Universidade Estadual de Londrina Professor
Departamento of Medicina Veterinária Preventiva Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Londrina
Paraná
Brasil


Inacio Teruo Inoue
UEL, Universidade Estadual de Londrina
Departamento of Ginecologia e Obstetrícia Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Londrina
Paraná
Brasil


Jancarlo Ferreira Gomes
Instituto de Computação (Laboratory of Image Data Science/LIDS)
Faculdade de Ciências Médicas and Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp)
São Paulo
Brasil


Jaqueline Dario Capobiango
UEL, Universidade Estadual de Londrina Professor
Departamento of Pediatria e Cirurgia Pediátrica Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Londrina
Paraná
Brasil


João Luis Garcia
UEL, Universidade Estadual de Londrina
Departamento of Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Laboratório de Protozoologia Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Londrina
Paraná
Brasil


Lucilene Granuzzio Camossi
UNICAMP, Universidade Estadual de Campinas
Instituto de Computação, Campinas
São Paulo
Brasil


Maerle Oliveira Maia
Unir, Fundaçãp Universidade Federal de Rondônia
Departamento de Medicina Veterinária
Brasil


Regina Mitsuka-Breganó
UEL, Universidade Estadual de Londrina
Departamento of Medicina Veterinária Preventiva Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Londrina
Paraná
Brasil


Selwyn Arligton Headley
UEL, Universidade Estadual de Londrina
Departamento of Medicina Veterinária Preventiva Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Londrina
Paraná
Brasil


Thaís Rabelo dos Santos
Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri
Campus Unaí Instituto de Ciências Agrárias
Minas Gerais
Brasil


Victor José Vieira Rosseto
Professor, UNIRP, Centro Universitário de Rio Preto
Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária
São José do Rio Preto
São Paulo, Brasil


Welber Daniel Zanetti Lopes
UFG
Universidade Federal de Goiás
Regional de Jataí
Brasil


Weslen Fabricio Pires Teixeira
Researcher, UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho
Campus de Araçatuba
Brasil




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