Phytochemicals in Vegetables: A Valuable Source of Bioactive Compounds

by

Spyridon A. Petropoulos, Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira, Lillian Barros

DOI: 10.2174/97816810873991180101
eISBN: 978-1-68108-739-9, 2018
ISBN: 978-1-68108-740-5



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Phytochemical compounds are secondary metabolites that plants usually synthesize for their own protection from pests and diseases. Phy...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i
Celestino Santos-Buelga
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Preface

- Pp. ii
Spyridon A. Petropoulos, Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira and Lilian Barros
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List of Contributors

- Pp. iii-v (3)
Spyridon A. Petropoulos, Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira and Lilian Barros
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Root Vegetables as a Source of Biologically Active Agents - Lesson from Soil

- Pp. 1-39 (39)
Dejan S. Stojkovic, Marija S. Smiljkovic, Marina Z. Kostic and Marina D. Sokovic
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Effects of Pre- and Post-Harvest, Technological and Cooking Treatments on Phenolic Compounds of the Most Important Cultivated Vegetables of the Genus Allium

- Pp. 40-73 (34)
Rosa Perez-Gregorio, Ana Sofia Rodrigues and Jesus Simal-Gandara
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Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as a Source of Natural Antioxidants

- Pp. 74-98 (25)
Ryszard Amarowicz and Ronald B. Pegg
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Phytochemicals Content and Health Effects of Cultivated and Underutilized Species of the Cucurbitaceae Family

- Pp. 99-165 (67)
Nikolaos Tzortzakis, Antonios Chrysargyris and Spyridon A. Petropoulos
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Phytochemicals in Asteraceae Leafy Vegetables

- Pp. 166-208 (43)
Maria Gonnella, Massimiliano Renna, Massimiliano D'Imperio, Giulio Testone and Donato Giannino
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Headspace Analysis of Volatile Compounds From Fruits of Selected Vegetable Species of Apiaceae Family

- Pp. 209-235 (27)
Milica G. Acimovic, Mirjana T. Cvetkovic, Jovana M. Stankovic, Vele V. Tesevic and Marina M. Todosijevic
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Anticancer Properties of Apiaceae

- Pp. 236-255 (20)
Milica G. Acimovic, Milica M. Rat, Vele V. Tesevic and Nevena S. Dojcinovic
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Phytochemicals, Functionality and Breeding for Enrichment of Cole Vegetables (Brassica oleracea L.)

- Pp. 256-295 (40)
Saurabh Singh, Rajender Singh, Prerna Thakur and Raj Kumar
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Solanaceae: A Family Well-known and Still Surprising

- Pp. 296-372 (77)
Blanka Svobodova and Vlastimil Kuban
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Impact on Health of Artichoke and Cardoon Bioactive Compounds: Content, Bioaccessibility, Bioavailability, and Bioactivity

- Pp. 373-403 (31)
Isabella D’Antuono, Francesco Di Gioia, Vito Linsalata, Erin N. Rosskopf and Angela Cardinali
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Phytochemicals Content and Health Effects of Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra)

- Pp. 404-443 (40)
Spyridon A. Petropoulos, Sofia Plexida, Nikolaos Tzortzakis and Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira
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Phytochemical, Nutritional and Pharmacological Properties of Unconventional Native Fruits and Vegetables from Brazil

- Pp. 444-472 (29)
Maria Fernanda Frankelin, Tatiane Francielli Vieira, Jessica Amanda Andrade Garcia, Rubia Carvalho Gomes Correa, Antonio Roberto Giriboni Monteiro, Adelar Bracht and Rosane Marina Peralta
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Author Index

- Pp. 473
Spyridon A. Petropoulos, Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira and Lilian Barros
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Subject Index

- Pp. 474-475 (2)
Spyridon A. Petropoulos, Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira and Lilian Barros
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Foreword

Vegetables play a crucial role in the human diet, being relevant contributors to the intake of micronutrients (i.e., vitamins and minerals) and dietary fiber and prebiotics, as well as occasionally of digestible carbohydrates and proteins (e.g., tubers and pulses). Furthermore, beyond their nutrient composition, vegetables contain a range of non-essential bioactive compounds (i.e., phytochemicals), among which carotenoids and polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, stilbenes, lignans or tannins, are prominent, with others such as glucosinolates (in Brassicaceae), cysteine sulfoxides (in Allium species) or betalains (in beets) having more limited distribution.

Phytochemicals have attracted much attention in recent times as they may provide additional health benefits to the consumption of vegetables and other plant foodstuffs. The dietary intake of these compounds has been related with the prevention of some chronic and degenerative diseases that constitute major causes of death and incapacity in developed countries, such as cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes, some types of cancers or neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Nowadays it is considered that phytochemicals contribute, at least in part, for the protective effects of fruit and vegetable-rich diets, so that the study of their role in human nutrition has become a central issue in food research.

Consumers more demand for healthy and nutritious natural foods, while they are increasingly reluctant to chemical additives. These are requirements that fresh or minimally processed plant foods like vegetables can meet. Nevertheless, time constraints in developed countries have led to a decreasing tendency in the preparation of daily meals based on fresh ingredients. In this context, phytochemicals-rich foods are of great interest for both consumers and food industry that can use them as sources of bioactive ingredients for functional foods, nutraceuticals or dietary supplements. Moreover, owing to their properties, some phytochemicals might be used as natural additives, like antioxidants, preservatives, colorants or taste enhancers. Last but not the least, their bioactivity makes them also interesting to pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries for the development of drugs or cosmeceuticals.

Acknowledged experts in their fields have collaborated in the preparation of this book under the coordination of Prof. Spyridon A. Petropoulos, Prof. Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira and Dr. Lillian Barros. Throughout 12 chapters, a comprehensive overview is provided on the main groups of cultivated edible vegetables, as well as on some particular less used or locally employed native species that might be promoted for larger use in human nutrition. The coverage is ample, while the main focus is put into the interest of vegetables as phytochemicals sources, aspects such as plant description, chemical composition, influence of breeding, post-harvest or processing on bioactive compounds, health effects, bioaccessibility or bioavailability are also dealt with. No doubt that the book will be very useful for academic and industrial scientists, but also for students and consumers concerned about their health or who wish to delve into the knowledge of vegetables, their nutrient and phytochemical composition and their undoubted relevance in the human diet.

Celestino Santos-Buelga
Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy,
University of Salamanca,
Spain


Preface

The present e-book aims at presenting the phytochemicals content of the main cultivated vegetables, as well as their health and therapeutic effects based on ¬in vitro and in vivo, animal and clinical studies. The importance of vegetables on human health is mostly attributed to their nutritional value; however, not always nutrients are the sole responsible compounds for such properties and several other compounds can also contribute to health-promoting effects. These compounds have been identified as secondary metabolites and plants usually synthesize them for their own protection from pests and diseases or their biosynthesis is triggered under specific environmental conditions.

Book structure has been arranged in individual chapters, each one of them dealing with specific groups of vegetable sources of phytochemicals, either in terms of taxonomy (species of the same family) or in terms of edible parts morphology (e.g. leafy and root vegetables). For each species, a short introduction regarding the description of morphology, taxonomy and general information is included, as well as its chemical composition and its main health effects.

Chapter 1 presents the main phytochemicals that have been identified in various roots vegetables consumed throughout the world, including potato, celeriac, turnips, radish, beets, Hamburg parsley, taro, yam, parsnip and salsify. Chapter 2 presents vegetables that belong to the Allium genus. Chapter 3 presents bean, a vegetable of the Fabaceae family, which is one of the main starch and protein sources for most of the world. Chapter 4 demonstrates the chemical composition and health effects of another group of vegetables that all belong to the Cucurbitaceae family. Chapters 5-7 provides a clear insight into a diversified group of vegetables that are consumed for their edible leaves, belonging to Asteraceae and Apiaceae families. Chapter 8 discusses the phytochemicals content, their functionality and breeding tools for the enrichment of cole vegetables (Brassicaceae) in phytochemicals. Chapter 9 presents another important group of fruit vegetable that belongs to the Solanaceae family, namely, tomato, eggplant and pepper. Other important vegetables, such as globe artichoke and okra, are characterized in chapters 10 and 11. Finally chapter 12 deals with a special group of fruit and vegetables, which although they have a regional interest and are less well-known, they present important bioactive properties and health effects.

Spyridon A. Petropoulos
Department of Agriculture, Crop Production and Rural Environment,
University of Thessaly,
Volos, Greece

Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira & Lilian Barros
Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO),
Instituto Politécnico de Bragança,
Bragança, Portugal

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Spyridon A. Petropoulos


Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira


Lillian Barros




Contributor(s):
Milica Aćimović
Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops Novi Sad
Serbia


Ryszard Amarowicz
Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences
Poland


Adelar Bracht
Departamento de Bioquímica
Universidade Estadual de Maringá
Maringá, Paraná
Brazil


Angela Cardinali
Institute of Sciences of Food Production
National Research Council
Bari
Italy


Antonios Chrysargyris
Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science
Cyprus University of Technology
Lemesos
Cyprus


Mirjana Cvetković
Institute of Chemistry
Technology and Metallurgy
University of Belgrade
Serbia


Isabella D’Antuono
Institute of Sciences of Food Production
National Research Council
Bari
Italy


Nevena S. Dojčinović
Faculty of Chemistry
University of Belgrade
Serbia


Francesco Di Gioia
Department of Plant Science
Pennsylvania State University
University Park, PA
USA


Massimiliano D'Imperio
Institute of Sciences of Food Production
CNR, Bari
Italy


Rubia Carvalho Gomes Correa
Departamento de Bioquímica
Universidade Estadual de Maringá
Maringá, Paraná
Brazil


Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira
Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO)
Instituto Politécnico de Bragança
Bragança
Portugal


Maria Fernanda Francelin
Departamento de Bioquímica
Universidade Estadual de Maringá
Maringá, Paraná
Brazil


Jessica Amanda Andrade Garcia
Departamento de Bioquímica
Universidade Estadual de Maringá
Maringá, Paraná
Brazil


Donato Giannino
Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology
CNR, Unit of Rome
Italy


Maria Gonnella
Institute of Sciences of Food Production
CNR, Bari
Italy


Marina Z. Kostic
Department of Plant Physiology, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”
University of Belgrade
Belgrade
Serbia


Vlastimil Kubáň
Department of Food Technology
Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin
Czech Republic


Raj Kumar
Division of Life Sciences, Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Research Center
Research Institute of Natural Science, Gyeongsang National University
Jinju-52828
Republic of Korea


Vito Linsalata
Institute of Sciences of Food Production
National Research Council
Bari
Italy


Antonio Roberto Giriboni Monteiro
Departamento de Bioquímica
Universidade Estadual de Maringá
Maringá, Paraná
Brazil


Ronald B. Pegg
Department of Food Science and Technology
College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences
The University of Georgia
USA


Rosane Marina Peralta
Departamento de Bioquímica
Universidade Estadual de Maringá
Maringá, Paraná
Brazil


Rosa Perez-Gregorio
LAQV-REQUIMTE
Departamento de Química e Bioquímica
Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto
Portugal


Spyridon A. Petropoulos
Department of Agriculture, Crop Production and Rural Environment
University of Thessaly
Volos
Greece


Sofia Plexida
Department of Agriculture, Crop Production and Rural Environment
University of Thessaly
Volos
Greece


Milica M. Rat
Faculty of Sciences
University of Novi Sad
Serbia


Massimiliano Renna
Institute of Sciences of Food Production
CNR, Bari
Italy
/
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Science
University of Bari Aldo Moro
Bari
Italy


Ana Sofia Rodrigues
Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo
Escola Superior Agrária
Ponte de Lima
Portugal
/
Centre for Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences – CITAB
Vila Real
Portugal


Erin N. Rosskopf
USDA-ARS, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory
Fort Pierce
FL
USA


Jesus Simal-Gandara
Nutrition and Bromatology Group
Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry
Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo
Spain


Saurabh Singh
Division of Vegetable Science
ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI)
New Delhi
India


Rajender Singh
ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI)
Regional Station, Katrain, Kullu Valley
Himachal Pradesh
India


Marija S. Smiljkovic
Department of Plant Physiology, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”
University of Belgrade
Belgrade
Serbia


Marina D. Sokovic
Department of Plant Physiology, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”
University of Belgrade
Belgrade
Serbia


Jovana Stanković
Institute of Chemistry
Technology and Metallurgy
University of Belgrade
Serbia


Dejan S. Stojkovic
Department of Plant Physiology, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”
University of Belgrade
Belgrade
Serbia


Blanka Svobodová
Department of Food Technology
Faculty of Technology
Tomas Bata University in Zlin
Czech Republic


Vele V. Tešević
Faculty of Chemistry
University of Belgrade
Serbia


Giulio Testone
Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology
CNR
Unit of Rome
Italy


Prerna Thakur
Department of Vegetable Science
Punjab Agricultural University (PAU)
Ludhiana, Punjab
India


Marina Todosijević
Faculty of Chemistry
University of Belgrade
Serbia


Nikolaos Tzortzakis
Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science
Cyprus University of Technology
Lemesos
Cyprus


Tatiane Francielli Vieira
Departamento de Bioquímica
Universidade Estadual de Maringá
Maringá, Paraná
Brazil




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