This ebook focuses on the actions exerted by 17b-Estradiol (E2) and Testosterone (T) in skeletal muscle tissue but keeping in mind that both steroid hormones affect growth and different cell functions in several organs. Accordingly, the estrogen (ER) and androgen (AR) receptors are ubiquitously expressed. Moreover, ER and AR may have non-classical intracellular localizations, raising complexity to the functional roles of E2 and T. Thus, the aim of this ebook is also to explain the role of sex hormones in mitochondrial physiology and its relation with ageing and apoptosis. Presenting in integrated form the latest information, on sarcopenia and its relation with apoptosis, from leading researchers studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the age-linked changes in muscle highlighting on the role of satellite cells. Since the skeletal muscle ability to repair and regenerate itself would not be possible without satellite cells, a subpopulation of cells that remain quiescent throughout life. They are activated by stress, enabling them to guide skeletal muscle regeneration. Interesting, satellite cells are E2 and T target.
Furthermore, the book contains a chapter about of phytoestrogens and their action on sex steroids receptors. Since phytoestrogens are structurally very similar to estrogen 17β-estradiol, they may exhibit selective estrogen receptors (ERs) modulating activities, specifically, they have a higher affinity for ERβ than ERα.
The ebook is recommended to scientists, clinicians and students in the field of medical and health sciences as well as to readers who are interested in the molecular mechanism of cellular apoptosis regulated by hormones.