Neutrophils in Infectious Diseases


by

Fabienne T.-Cottier, Ger v. Zandbergen

DOI: 10.2174/97816080502391110101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-023-9, 2011
ISBN: 978-1-60805-382-7

  
  


Indexed in: Scopus, Chemical Abstracts

Host defense to intracellular pathogens depends upon both innate and adaptive cell-mediated immune responses. Polymorphonuclear neutro...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

Foreword , Pp. i

Werner Solbach

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Preface , Pp. ii

Fabienne Tacchini-Cottier and Ger van Zandbergen

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Contributors , Pp. iii-iv (2)

Fabienne Tacchini-Cottier and Ger van Zandbergen

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Neutrophils and Extracellular Traps in Microbial Infections , Pp. 3-10 (8)

Volker Brinkmann

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Imaging Neutrophil-Pathogen Interactions in vivo , Pp. 11-19 (9)

Sylvia Münter, Claudia Kuss, Markus Meissner and Friedrich Frischknecht

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Neutrophils in the Context of Polymicrobial Sepsis , Pp. 20-36 (17)

Danielle G. Souza, José C. Alves-Filho, Fernando Q. Cunha, Cristiano X. Lima and Mauro M. Teixeira

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The Role of Neutrophils in Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection: First Line of Defense or the Gateway for Systemic Dissemination? , Pp. 37-41 (5)

Ger van Zandbergen and Jan Rupp

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Neutrophils in Mycobacterial Infections , Pp. 42-48 (7)

Angelo Martino, Edgar Badell and Nathalie Winter

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Role of Neutrophils in the Early Shaping of the Leishmania major Specific Immune Response in Experimental Murine Cutaneous Leish , Pp. 49-58 (10)

Angelo Martino, Edgar Badell, Nathalie Winter, Mélanie Charmoy, Geneviève Milon and Fabienne Tacchini-Cottier

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Understanding Neutrophil Function During Toxoplasma gondii Infection , Pp. 59-66 (8)

Eric Y. Denkers

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Neutrophils as Potential Safe Niche for Leishmania and Anaplasma , Pp. 67-76 (10)

Ger van Zandbergen, Elena Bank, Martina Behnen, Matthias Klinger and Tamas Laskay

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Index , Pp. 77-79 (3)

Fabienne Tacchini-Cottier and Ger van Zandbergen

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Foreword

More than hundred years ago, Eli Metchnikoff was the first to discover phagocytosis by macrophages and “microphages”, today known as neutrophilic granulocytes, as a critical host-defense mechanism. Their life-saving role in combating acute infections is undoubted as wittnessed by potentially lethal diseases resulting from defects in number or function of neutrophils, for example iatrogenic leukopenia or rare diseases like the leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome, chronic granulomatous disease or congenital neutropenia.

Historically, neutrophils were widely disrespected by researchers as gormless cells that crawl, eat and disgorge prepacked enzymes and reduced molecules of oxygen. This may have been due to difficulties in experimental approaches given the short half-life of the cells in vitro and in vivo.

Recent advances in technology have put the neutrophils in the centre of interest for infection biologists and immunologists. They are the first cells that are able to recognize tissue injury and the presence of genomes other than those encodes in the germline of the individual. Central to this function is to sense injury and “non-self” by pattern-recognition receptors, to send alarming signals to activate epithelial and endothelial cells, mast cells, macrophages and platelets. As key component of the inflammatory response, neutrophils are instrumental to recruitment, activation and programming of antigen-presenting cells by generating chemokines, regulatory cytokines and through direct cellular contact. In addition, they make important contributions to the activation of antigen-recognizing T- and B-lymphocytes and are thus important decision-makers and decision-shapers for the success or failure of the adaptive immune system in serving the collective good.

Some microbes like Chlamydia, Anaplasma or Leishmania are able to substantially prolong the usually short half-life of neutrophils (6-8 hours in the circulation, 15 hours in the petri-dish) by slowing-down the apoptotic program. Although the molecular basis of that interaction remains to be uncovered, it is clear that this mechanism paves the microorganisms to a silent entry into hosts cells and faciltates their dissemination through the organism.

Equipped with the “licence to kill” by means of the respiratory burst, the degranulation response and the formation of extracellular traps, it is not surprising that the killing machinery leaves collateral tissue damage in acute infections (pus), but also makes important contributions to the consolidation and the organisation of the extracellular matrix in the granulomatous tissue of chronic disease states with underlying infections, autoimmune reactions or tumors.

This e-book collects a fine selection of contributions from leading experts in the field of neutrophil biology in the context of infection. Their discoveries document that it is time to set aside the view that neutrophils are merely destructive cells that lash out blindly before dying. It is time to recognize neutrophils as life-saving body-guards which are in the centre of the network of the circuits that bring out the innate and adaptive immune system.

Prof. Dr. med. Werner Solbach


Preface

Host defense to intracellular pathogens depends upon both innate and adaptive cell-mediated immune responses. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes which belong to the innate immune system are the first cells that are recruited massively within hours of microbial infection. Neutrophils are the main players in the killing of microorganisms and recently new methods of killing including nets formation have been described. Neutrophils mediate tissue damage at infected sites. By promoting tissue injury neutrophils contribute to the initiation of inflammation, which is now recognized as an essential step in launching immunity. The importance of neutrophils as decision shaper in the development of an immune response is only emerging as they have long been considered by immunologists as short lived, non-dividing cells, of poor interest.  Now, neutrophils are emerging as key components of the inflammatory response, and are shown to have immunoregulatory roles in microbial infections.  In addition, neutrophils were also reported to contribute to the recruitment and activation of antigen presenting cells. Thus early interactions between neutrophils and surrounding cells may influence the development/resolution of both inflammatory lesion and pathogen-specific immune response. The impact of neutrophils on cells present at the site of infection are only beginning to be studied and deserves more attention. 

In this e-book the reader will find updated information about the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of 1) bacterial diseases including sepsis, mycobacteria and Chlamydia infections, and of 2) parasitic diseases including leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis. The role of neutrophils in the protection against microorganisms has largely been underestimated and, until recently, their role was mostly thought to limited to a “kill and die” response. We will emphasize standard and advanced light microscopy techniques that allowed major advances in the understanding of neutrophil biology, through the visualization of the interaction of selected pathogens with neutrophils in living animals (Chapter 1). New neutrophil mode of killing, such as their release of extracellular traps to kill extracellular bacterial pathogens, together with several microbial strategies designed to escape NETs are presented in Chapter 2. Recent data in the field will illustrate the new role of neutrophils as orchestrators of a protective innate and adaptive immune response in bacterial (Chapters 3-5) and in parasitic infections as well (Chapter 6-7). Finally, neutrophil role as host cells and Trojan horses for parasite entry into the host will be the topic of Chapters 8.

The aim of this e-book is to provide an overview of the recent advances made in the field of neutrophil biology. It will provide a basis for understanding future development that will occur in this area, and provide the reader with a short overview of some of the exciting new directions in which neutrophil research is moving.

Fabienne Tacchini-Cottier
Ger van Zandbergen

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Fabienne T.-Cottier
University of Lausanne
Switzerland


Ger v. Zandbergen
Immunology, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut
Germany




Contributor(s):
José C. Alves-Filho
Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacology
School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo
Ribeirão Preto
SP
Brazil


Edgar Badel
Engineer, Institut Pasteur
Unité de Génétique Mycobactérienne
25 rue du Dr Roux
Paris
France


Elena Bank
PhD-Student, Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University Clinic of Ulm
Albert Einstein Allee 11
Ulm, D-89081
Germany


Volker Brinkmann
Senior Researcher, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology
Charitéplatz 1,
Berlin, D-10117
Germany


Martina Behnen
Post-Doc Student, Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Lübeck
Ratzeburger Allee 160
Lübeck, D-23562
Germany


Mélanie Charmoy
Post-Doc Student, Department of Biochemistry
WHO Immunology Research and Training Center, University of Lausanne
Epalinges, 1066
Switzerland


Fernando Q. Cunha
Professor, Department of Pharmacology
School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo
Ribeirão Preto
SP
Brazil


Eric Y. Denkers
Professor, Department of Microbiology and Immunology
College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University
Ithaca
NY, 14853-6401
USA


Friedrich Frischknecht
Senior Researcher, Parasitology, Department of Infectious Diseases
University of Heidelberg Medical School
Im Neuenheimer Feld 324
Heidelberg
69120
Germany


Matthias Klinger
Senior Researcher, Institute of Anatomy, University of Lübeck
Ratzeburger Allee 160
Lübeck, D-23562
Germany


Claudia Kuss
PhD-Student, Parasitology, Department of Infectious Diseases
University of Heidelberg Medical School,
Im Neuenheimer Feld 324
Heidelberg, 69120
Germany


Tamàs Laskay
Professor, Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Lübeck
Ratzeburger Allee 160
Lübeck, D-23562
Germany


Cristiano X. Lima
Post-doctoral fellow, Immunopharmacology, Departments of Microbiology
Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Brazil


Angelo Martino
Post-doctoral fellow, National Institute for Infectious Diseases-IRCCS
Lazzaro Spallanzani
Rome
Italy


Markus Meissner
Senior Researcher, Wellcome Trust and University of Glasgow, Glasgow Biomedical Research Center
Office b-613, Glasgow G12 8QQ
UK


Geneviève Milon
Senior Researcher, Institut Pasteur, Département de Parasitologie et Mycologie
Unité d'Immunophysiologie et Parasitisme Intracellulaire
25 rue du dr Roux
Paris, 75015
France


Sylvia Münter
Parasitology, Department of Infectious Diseases
University of Heidelberg Medical School
Im Neuenheimer Feld 324
Heidelberg, 69120
Germany


Jan Rupp
Professor, Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Lübeck
Ratzeburger Allee 160
Lübeck, D-23562
Germany


Werner Sollbach
Professor, Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Lübeck
Ratzeburger Allee 160
Lübeck, D-23562
Germany


Mauro M. Teixeira
Professor, Biochemistry and Immunology
Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Brazil


Danielle G. Souza
Associate Professor, Immunopharmacology, Departments of Microbiology Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Brazil


Fabienne Tacchini-Cottier
Associate Professor, WHO Immunology Research and Training Center, Department of Biochemistry
University of Lausanne
Epalinges, 1066
Switzerland


Nathalie Winter
Senior Researcher, INRA, U1282, Infectiologie Animale & Santé Publique
Nouzilly, 37380
France


Ger van Zandbergen
Head of the Immunology Division, Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Federal Institute for Vaccines and Biomedicines
Langen
Germany




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