1. eBook Layout

1.1. Preliminary Pages

consists of the introductory sections of the ebook that precede the main text. Editors are advised to prepare these pages carefully as the information given is used for promotional purposes and for international cataloguing programs. The Preliminary pages include:


1.11. Title Page:

Contains the title of the ebook, the subtitle (if any), edition (for second or subsequent editions only), author's /editor's names. In addition, the title page may contain the author's/editor's affiliations.


1.12. Title Verso/Copyright Page:

The information for this page is generated by the publisher. This page contains: the copyright information (including the notice of reserved rights); publishing history (for new editions or translations); full addresses of publisher's principal editorial offices, CIP (international catalogue) data; the ISBN; and printing information (e.g. printed by Bentham Science publishers).


1.13. Dedication Page:

There is no rule of text organization for this page as it refers to a personal statement.


1.14. Table of Contents:

Contain at least the chapter titles preceded by the chapter numbers. You may also wish to add the first, and maybe even the second level of heading within each chapter. In a contributed ebook, the content page should also indicate the author of each chapter. Part/Section titles should be included if there are any.


Note:

Follow the given style for writing the names of the authors in the contents and in the chapter(s).


Format: First Name Middle Name (initialize, if any) Last Name (e.g. Claudia L. Bianchi)



1.15. Foreword:

One page foreword should be written by an eminent researcher in the field (other than the author/editor). Include the writer's name and affiliation at the end (Please visit www.benthamscience.com/ebooks for sample foreword).


Note:

A foreword is usually written by an eminent researcher on the subject, and serves as a recommendation of the ebook.


It is available for free viewing on the website.



1.16. Preface:

One page preface written by the author or editor of the ebook, briefly explaining the aims and scope of the ebook (Please visit www.benthamscience.com/ebooks for sample preface).


1.17. List of Contributors:

Contains names of all contributors to the ebook, in alphabetical order with their affiliations and addresses (Please visit www.benthamscience.com/ebooks for sample List of Contributors). The format of the list of contributors should be as follows:


Note:

Author's last name, Author's initial(s) Name of University/Organization City Name, State code (in case of USA only) Country Name



1.2. Body Text

BODY TEXT or the main text is essentially made up of chapters, which may be grouped into Parts or Sections that are typically numbered with roman capitals (Part I, II, III,...). Part-title pages may contain text to introduce the reader to the chapters in the part. Chapters are usually numbered with Arabic numerals (Chapter 1, 2, 3,...). In multi-authored contributed titles, each chapter includes its own abstract, references or bibliography list since chapters should be self-contained.


1.3. Back Pages

This may include:


1.31. Appendices:

An appendix is a reference section at the end of an ebook. To present lengthy, but essential methodological details, use appendices, which can be a part of the chapter. An appendix must not exceed three pages (Times New Roman, 12 point fonts, 900 max. words per page).The information should be provided in a condensed form, ruling out the need of full sentences. A single appendix should be titled APPENDIX, while more than one can be titled APPENDIX A, APPENDIX B, and so on.


1.32. Glossaries:

are a list of terms in a particular domain with the definitions for those terms. Traditionally, a glossary appears at the end of a book and includes terms within that book which are either newly introduced or at least uncommon.


1.33. Bibliographies:

systematic list of books and other works such as journal articles. Bibliographies range from "works cited" lists at the end of books and articles to complete, independent publications.


1.34. Index:

Author index and subject index should be prepared well before submission of the ebook. A detailed list of the specific information in the ebook should be arranged alphabetically.


1.35. Back Cover Page:

A brief write-up (100-150 words) on the major contributions and current affiliation of the author/editor will be required to be printed on the back cover of the print version along with his/her photograph (600 dpi). Sample


1.4. eBook/ Chapter Length

The minimum page limit of the ebooks is 150 published pages for authored and 250 pages for edited ebooks. Each ebook may contain 10-15 chapters each comprising 30-50 composed pages, with each page having an average word count of 500-600 words. There is no restriction on the number of figures, tables or additional files e.g. video clips, animation and datasets, which can be included with each chapter online. Authors should include all relevant supporting data with each chapter (Refer to Supplementary Material section).


2. Chapter Preparation

The chapter should be written in English (U.S. or U.K. spelling) in a clear, direct and active style. All pages must be numbered sequentially, facilitating in the reviewing and editing of the ebook/chapter.


2.1. Chapter Organization

Chapter of the ebook may be divided into the following sections:


  • Covering Letter

  • Title

  • Title Page

  • Authors and Institutional Affiliations

  • Chapter Abstract

  • Keywords

  • Headings

  • Text Organization

  • Greek Symbols and Special Characters

  • Equations and Mathematical Expressions

  • Footnotes

  • Patient Consent

  • List of Abbreviations

  • Acknowledgements

  • Conflict of Interest

  • References

  • Figure/Illustrations

  • Chemical Structures

  • Tables

  • Supportive/Supplementary Material


2.11. Covering Letter

It is a mandatory requirement that a signed covering letter should be submitted along with each chapter by the author to whom correspondence is to be addressed, delineating the scope of the submitted ebook/chapter, declaring the potential competing interests, acknowledging contributions from authors and funding agencies, and certifying that the ebook/chapter is prepared according to the 'Guidelines for Authors'. The ebook/chapter should not contain any such material or information that may be unlawful, defamatory, fabricated, plagiarized, or which would, if published, in any way whatsoever, violate the terms and conditions as laid down in the covering letter. The editors/authors acknowledge that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the editors/authors for any such violation of the terms and conditions as laid down in the agreement. Please click here to download the 'Covering Letter'.


2.12. Title

The title of the chapter should be precise and brief and must not be more than 120 characters. Authors should avoid the use of non-standard abbreviations. The title must be written in title case with font size 14 pt bold except for articles, conjunctions and prepositions.


Authors should also provide a short running title. Title, running title, byline, correspondent footnote and keywords should be written as presented in the chapter.


2.13. Title Page

Title page should include Chapter title, author(s) full name and affiliation, corresponding author(s) names complete affiliation/address, along with phone, fax and email.


2.14. Authors And Institutional Affiliations

The authors will be required to provide their full names, the institutional affiliations and the location, with an asterisk in front of the name of the principal/corresponding author. The corresponding author(s) should be designated and their complete address, business telephone and fax numbers and e-mail address must be stated for correspondence.


2.15. Chapter Abstract

The abstract should not exceed 250 words and it should condense the essential features of the chapter. Font size of 10 pt letters should be used for the text in the abstract.


Note:

Abstract is a brief summary of the contents of the chapter. The abstract is available online freely on the website of BSP to facilitate online searching and allow a no. of viewers to read it, conveniently.


It is recommended not to include reference citations or amorphous abbreviations in the abstract, since abstracts are accessible freely to the readers without the complimentary access to the reference list.



2.16. Keywords

20 keywords should be provided in alphabetical order. Each keyword should be delimited with comma.


Note:

Each keyword should not contain more than two compound words.


When selecting the keywords, pick terms that support traceability of your chapter at the search engine. Specific terms should be used as keywords to limit the search results.


2.17. Headings

While preparing a chapter the authors should ensure that various levels of heading are clearly distinguishable. The headings should follow a logical hierarchy. Five is considered as the maximum number of levels of heading. Examples are given below:


Level 1: HEADING (The first heading should be caps, 12 pt and bold)


Level 2: Heading (second heading should be title case, 12 pt and bold)


Level 3: Heading (Third heading should be title case, 12 pt bold, italics and bold)


Level 4: Heading (Fourth heading should be title case, 12 pt bold, italics and underline)


Level 5: Heading (Fifth heading should be title case, 12 pt unbold, italics and underline)


2.18. Text Organization

The style of the chapter must be uniform throughout the text and 12 pt Times New Roman fonts should be used. The full term for an abbreviation should precede its first appearance in the text unless it is a standard unit of measurement. The reference numbers should be given in square brackets in the text except for APA and Harvard styles. Italics should be used for Binomial names of organisms (Genus and Species), for emphasis and for unfamiliar words or phrases. Non-assimilated words from Latin or other languages should also be italicized e.g. in vivo, in vitro, per se, via, viz, viz-a-viz, de novo, vs, versus, in silico, in situ, ex-vivo, ex-vitro, ex-situ, et al, etc.


2.19. Patent Review Coverage (For Patent eBook Series Only)

Authors should review recent important patents in the field. Coverage of novel research and clinical trials should be emphasized, including the significance of the reported patents.


2.20. Greek Symbols And Special Characters

Greek symbols and special characters often undergo formatting changes and get corrupted or lost during preparation of chapter for publication. To ensure that all special characters used are embedded in the text, these special characters should be inserted as a symbol but should not be a result of any format styling (Symbol font face) otherwise they will be lost during conversion to PDF/XML1.


Chemical equations, chemical names, mathematical usage, unit of measurements, chemical and physical quantity & units must conform to SI and Chemical Abstracts or IUPAC.


2.21. Equations and Mathematical Expressions

All mathematical equation must be provided in the MathType or any other Equations Editor Software.


1. Fractions:

The use of built-up fractions in the text should be avoided. If not avoided by the author(s), built-up fractions got converted to equivalent expressions on the line when the ebook/chapter is copyedited. In display matter, however, built-up fractions are preferred for clarity. Fractions can be “built up” bar , “slashed” with a solidus, (a + b)/c, or written with a negative exponent, (a + b)c-1. In text all fractions must be either slashed or written with a negative exponent.


2. Equations Breaking (multi linear equations):

Mathematical expressions often need to be displayed on two or more lines (“broken”). The best place for a break is just before an operator or sign of relation. These signs should begin the next line of the equation.


The use of small-type mathematical expressions centered above or below arrows must be avoided. If possible alternative format must be adopted.


In the exponential function, exponents having more than one or two characters must be avoided.


The use of reference numbers for equations that are not subsequently referred to in the ebook/chapter must be avoided. Costs are reduced if short mathematical equations and other expressions in the text are run in (instead of each being displayed on a separate line). Authors must expect that, when accepted ebooks/chapters are copyedited, "excess" equation reference numbers will be deleted and short equations will run in with text.


Special marking for symbols (e.g., italics, boldface) must be indicated and any unusual symbols should be clearly defined. Underscored symbols should be avoided because they often require hand composition and opening up lines and thus are expensive. In vector notations, with letters or notations, if any, may be set in boldface type should be indicated. If asterisks are to be set in superscript position or centered on the line should also be mentioned.


Mathematical symbols must be defined immediately where they are introduced. Punctuation should not be used at the end of an equation.


8. Character Fonts:

The italic font should be used for mathematical symbol (this is the default font in TeX/LaTeX’s math mode). In addition to variables and constants, the italic font should be used for chapter symbols, symbols of quantum states and group-theoretic designations.


9. Equation Numbering:

All equations should be indented and numbered as follows: (1) A principal equation and subordinate equations may be numbered (1), (1a), (1b), etc.


Equation number should be right justified. Put three dots (...) midway should be placed between the end of the equation and the equation number.


Particular care should be taken to distinguish between the number zero (0) and the letter O; the number one (1) and the letter l, the Roman letter v and the Greek letter nu (n). The decimal logarithm should be written "log" and the natural log "ln". The abbreviation of the exponential function is a roman e (for example, ex) or exp (for example, exp (u2 + n)). In expressions of the type dxdt, the letter d (derivative function) is always written in roman, whereas the physical parameter (x or t) is always in italics. Numbers are written in numerals when they are followed by units, these being represented by their SI symbols (10 % but a few percent).


In numerals, each group of three letters should be separated by a space (except for dates and postal codes).


A diacritical sign is a marking placed directly above or below symbols, e.g., the arrow in


14. Subscripts and Superscripts:

All available characters can be used as subscripts or superscripts. Position of a subscript or superscript is dictated by standard notation.


Example:


15. Abbreviations Designating Mathematical Functions:

Roman multiletter abbreviations must be closed up to the argument following and separated from any preceding symbol by a thin space, that is


● To treat a function of a function, it should be enclosed in bold round parentheses, i.e., g(f(x)).


16. e and exp (for exponent) notation:

The e form is appropriate when the argument is short and simple, i.e., eik•r, whereas exp should be used if the argument is more complicated.


17. Bracketing and Grouping Sequence:

For the purpose of grouping, the sequence of bracketing preferred is {[()]}, working outwards in sets ( ), [ ], and {}. { [ ( { [ ( ) ] } ) ] }


18. Limits and Indices:

In text, however, space limitations require that single limit sums or integrals use subscripts and superscripts, for example,


19. Multiplication Signs:

The primary use of the multiplication sign is to indicate a vector product of three-vectors (e.g., k x A). It should not be used to express a simple product. The center dot (•) should not be used to mean a simple product. But to represent inner products of vectors (k • r).


20. Mathematical Terms:

The use of the following standard symbols is recommended.


21. Math Formulae:

Simple formulae should be presented in the line of normal text where possible and the solidus (/) be used instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).


Authors should provide the equations in TeX/LaTeX file format separately as well as embedded in the ebook/chapter.


2.22. FootNotes

Footnotes should be used carefully, and numbered them consecutively throughout the ebook/chapter, using superscript. The position of footnotes should be indicated in the text and be mentioned separately at the end of the chapter, not in the Reference section.


2.23. Patient Consent

Authors are required to obtain permission from the patient or patient’s relatives for submission of the case report for potential publication. This must be obtained before submission of the ebook/chapters and the authors must declare this in their chapters.


2.24. List of Abbreviations

If abbreviations are used in the text either they should be defined in the text where first used, or a list of abbreviations be provided.


2.25. Acknowledgements

All individuals listed as authors must have contributed substantially to the design, performance, analysis, or reporting of the work and are required to indicate their specific contribution. Anyone (individual/company/institution) who has substantially contributed to the study for important intellectual content, or who was involved in the ebook/chapter drafting or revising must also be acknowledged.


2.26. Conflict of Interest

Financial contributions to the work being reported must be clearly acknowledged, as should any potential conflict of interest under the heading ‘Conflict of Interest’. Authors must list the source(s) of funding for the study, for each author, and for the ebook/chapter preparation. Guest or honorary authorship based solely on position (e.g. research supervisor, departmental head) is discouraged.


2.27. References

The reference list style depends on the subject of your ebook. Specified reference styles are given for different subject categories:


Subject Categories Reference Styles In Text Citations Listing of References in the Reference Section
Biomedical Disciplines Vancouver All references should be numbered sequentially [in square brackets] in the text. All references should be numbered sequentially [in square brackets] in the text. It is necessary to list all authors if the total number of authors is 3 or less and for more than 3 authors use et al. in italics.
Chemistry and related Disciplines ACS All references should be numbered sequentially [in square brackets] in the text. All authors must be cited and there should be no use of the phrase et al.
Engineering and Ancillary Disciplines IEEE All references should be numbered sequentially [in square brackets] in the text. All authors must be cited and there should be no use of the phrase et al.
Social and Behavioral Sciences Disciplines APA Last name and year within parentheses e.g. (last name et al., year). References to more than one publication by an author in the same year should be distinguished with lower-case letters, e.g. (Smith 2003a, 2003b). The abbreviated author and date reference should be placed in parentheses unless the name forms part of the text, e.g. “Jones (2005) has established that….” If no person is named as author, the name of the appropriate body should be used, e.g. (Ecological Society of America 2006). All authors’ names should be listed in the references. The full list of references including names of all authors should be typed in alphabetical order.
Health Sciences Disciplines Harvard
Patent eBook Series Vancouver, For Patent references use the format given below All references should be numbered sequentially [in square brackets] in the text. All references should be numbered sequentially [in square brackets] in the text. It is necessary to list all authors if the total number of authors is 6 or less and for more than 6 authors use et al. in italics, after listing the names of 6 authors.

Please find below few examples of references in different styles:


Subject Categories Reference Styles In Text Citations Listing of References in the Reference Section
Biomedical Disciplines Vancouver All references should be numbered sequentially [in square brackets] in the text. All references should be numbered sequentially [in square brackets] in the text. It is necessary to list all authors if the total number of authors is 3 or less and for more than 3 authors use et al. in italics.
Chemistry and related Disciplines ACS All references should be numbered sequentially [in square brackets] in the text. All authors must be cited and there should be no use of the phrase et al.
Engineering and Ancillary Disciplines IEEE All references should be numbered sequentially [in square brackets] in the text. All authors must be cited and there should be no use of the phrase et al.
Social and Behavioral Sciences Disciplines APA Last name and year within parentheses e.g. (last name et al., year). References to more than one publication by an author in the same year should be distinguished with lower-case letters, e.g. (Smith 2003a, 2003b). The abbreviated author and date reference should be placed in parentheses unless the name forms part of the text, e.g. “Jones (2005) has established that….” If no person is named as author, the name of the appropriate body should be used, e.g. (Ecological Society of America 2006). All authors’ names should be listed in the references. The full list of references including names of all authors should be typed in alphabetical order.
Health Sciences Disciplines Harvard
Patent eBook Series Vancouver, For Patent references use the format given below All references should be numbered sequentially [in square brackets] in the text. All references should be numbered sequentially [in square brackets] in the text. It is necessary to list all authors if the total number of authors is 6 or less and for more than 6 authors use et al. in italics, after listing the names of 6 authors.

Please find below few examples of references in different styles:


Reference Styles Journal Reference Book References Book Chapter Reference
Vancouver [1] Anderson SJ, Lenburg M, Landau NR, Garcia JV. The cytoplasmic domain of CD4 is sufficient for its down-regulation from the cell surface by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef. J Virol 1994; 68: 3092-01.
[2] Banda NK, Bernier J, Kurahara DK, et al. Crosslinking CD4 by human immunodeficiency virus gp120 primes T cells for activation induced apoptosis. J Exp Med 1992; 176: 1099-06.
[3] Crandell KA, Ed. The evolution of HIV. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press 1999; pp. 3-4. [4] Watkins JC. Twenty-five years of excitatory amino acid research. In: Roberts PJ, Storm-Mathisen J, Bradford H, Eds. Excitatory amino acids. Chichester, MacMillan Press 1986; pp. 1-39.
ACS [1] Banner, D.W.; Harvary, P. Crystallographic analysis at 3.0-A resolution of the binding to human thrombin of four active site-directed inhibitors. J. Biol. Chem., 1991, 266, 20085-20093. [2] Crabtree, R.H. The Organometallic Chemistry of the Transition Metals, 3rd ed.; Wiley & Sons: New York, 2001. [3] Wheeler, D.M.S.; Wheeler, M.M. In: Studies in Natural Products Chemistry; Atta-ur-Rahman, Ed.; Elsevier Science B.V: Amsterdam, 1994; Vol. 14, pp. 3-46.
IEEE [1] G. Liu, K.Y. Lee, and H.F. Jordan, "TDM and TWDM de Bruijn networks and shufflenets for optical communications", IEEE Trans. Comp., vol. 46, pp. 695-701, June 1997. [2] U.J. Gelinas, Jr., S.G. Sutton, and J. Fedorowicz, Business processes and information technology. Cincinnati: South Western/Thomson Learning, 2004. [3] L. Rosenfeld, and P. Morville, “Designing Navigation Systems,” In: Information Architecture for the World Wide Web, 2nd ed. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly, 1998, pp. 47-71.
Harvard Culotta, E (2008), 'Hobbit skull suggests a separate species', Science Now, no. 677, p. 2. Flexer, RW, Baer, RM, Luft, P & Simmons, TJ (2008), Transition planning for secondary students with disabilities, 3rd ed., Pearson, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. Stevenson, WG & Friedman, PL (1999) In: Hennekens, CH (Ed) Clinical Trials in Cardiovascular Disease, WB Saunders Co., Philadelphiaa 217-30.
APA Mellers, B.A. (2000). Choice and the relative pleasure of consequences. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 910-924. Bernstein, D. K., & Tiegerman, E. (1989). Language and communication disorders in children (2nd ed.). Columbus, OH: Merill. Phillips, S.J., & Whisnant, J. (1995). Hypertension and Stroke. In: Laragh, J.H., & Brenner, B. (Eds.), Hypertension: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management (pp. 465-478). New York: Raven Press.
Patent reference Style (for Patent eBook Series Only) The names of all inventors’ of the patents must be stated with the title of the patent, patent number and the year of publication (in bold). For example: Prabhakar, B.S., Mulherkar, N. IG20 splice variants therapeutics for cancer. US7910723 (2011).
Citation of the patents should be according to international convention as follows:
WO Patents, 1978-2003:
Myers, C.E., Trepel, J., Sausville, E., Samid, D., Miller, A., Curt, G. Use of monoterpenes, sesquiterpernes and diterpernes for the treatment of cancer. WO9420080 (1994).
Nacht, M., Dracheva, T., Sidransky, D., Madden, S.L., Jen, J. Molecular characteristics of non-small cell lung cancer. WO03015613 (2003).
WO Patents. 2004 onwards:
Chan, P.-K., Mak, M.S. Inhibiting the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. WO2011009032 (2011).
US Patent Applications, 2001 onwards:
Taylor, R.B., Henley, E.C. Composition for and method of preventing or treating breast cancer. US20010047033 (2001).
Yu, M. Compounds, composition, methods, targets for cancer therapy. US20110142815 (2011).
Issued Patents:
Sakamoto, I., Takagi, K. Anti-cancer device. US4536387 (1985).
Koya, K. Combination with bis(thiohydrazide amides) for treating cancer. US7939564 (2011).
EP Patents:
Sakamoto, I., Takagi, K. Anti-cancer device. EP0086627 (1985).
Gevas, P.C., Karr, S.L., Grimes, S., Michaeli, D., Watson, S.A. Immunological methods for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer. EP0889735 (2011).

Some Important Points to Remember

  • All references must be complete and accurate.

  • Online citations should include the date of access.

  • Special care should be taken of the punctuation convention as described in the above-mentioned examples.

  • Journal abbreviations should follow the Index Medicus/MEDLINE.

  • Use of superscript in the in-text citations and reference section should be avoided.

  • Abstracts, unpublished data and personal communications (which can only be included if prior permission has been obtained) should not be given in the reference section but they may be mentioned in the text and details provided as footnotes.

  • Reference citation in the text should not be cross linked with the reference given in the reference section.

  • The authors are encouraged to use a recent version of EndNote (version 5 and above) or Reference Manager (version 10) when formatting their reference list, as this allows references to be automatically extracted.


2.28. Figure/Illustrations

The authors should provide the illustrations as separate files, as well as embedded in the text file, numbered consecutively in the order of their appearance. Each figure should include a single illustration. Each figure should be closely cropped to minimize the amount of white space surrounding the illustration.


If a figure consists of separate parts, it is important that a single composite illustration file be submitted, containing all parts of the figure.


Photographs should be provided with a scale bar if appropriate, as well as high-resolution component files. All authors must strictly follow the guidelines below for preparing illustrations for publication.


If the figures are found to be sub-standard, then the ebook/chapter will be rejected/ and the authors offered the option of graphics improvement professionally by Bentham Publishing Services. The costs for such improvement will be charged to the authors.


1. Format & Resolution:

The following file formats are acceptable (Preference in order of appearance):

  • Source file(Original drawn in software)

  • PDF(In vector graphics)

  • IA(In vector graphics)

  • EPS(In vector graphics)

  • CDR(In vector graphics)

  • FREEHAND(In vector graphics)

  • PPT(In vector graphics)

  • DOC(In vector graphics)

  • EXCEL(In vector graphics)

  • TIFF(Minimum dpi 300)

  • JPEG(Minimum dpi 300)


We don’t accept scan version or hardcopy.


Bentham Science does not process figures submitted in GIF format.


2. Size of Image:

Whenever possible, graphics that do not have to be reduced to fit the standard figure size be submitted or alternatively, the figures in their original program in which they have been drawn.


3. Resolution:

The best resolution available (hardcopy submission requirement) should be used. For online submission the minimum resolution is 300 dpi.


  • Textures and shadings giving a three-dimensional effect to the illustration should be avoided.

  • For Halftone image type, which is generally a continuous tone photograph and contains no text, the preferred file format is TIFF, with color mode being or RGB or Grayscale, in a resolution of minimum 300 dpi.

  • For Combination image type, which is generally an image containing halftone in addition to text or line art elements, the preferred file format is TIFF, with color mode being or RGB or Grayscale, in a resolution of minimum 300-500 dpi.


4. Vector Designing:

Vector design means editing any picture in any format. Vector-based images are not made up of a specific number of dots; they can be scaled to a larger size, retaining image quality. If raster graphic is blown up it looks blocky, or "pixilated". When the blown up figure is in vector graphics, the edges of each object within the graphic stay smooth and clean. Common types of vector graphics include Adobe Illustrator, Macromedia Freehand, and EPS files. Many Flash animations also use vector graphics, since they scale better and typically take up less space than bitmap images. File extensions may be .AI, .EPS, .SVG, .DRW.


Instead, vector graphics are comprised of paths, which are defined by a start and end point, along with other points, curves, and angles along the way. A path can be a line, a square, a triangle, or a curvy shape. These paths can be used to create simple drawings or complex diagrams.


5. Lettering:

  • Symbols and lettering in the illustration should be of similar size.

  • Smaller lettering must be used.

  • For symbols Times New Roman or Helvetica font style is preferable with font size: 10pt (maximum).


6. Image Conversion Tools:

There are many software packages, many of them freeware or shareware, capable of converting to and from different graphics formats, including PNG. Good general tools for image conversion include GraphicConverter on the Macintosh, PaintShop Pro, for Windows, and ImageMagick, which is available on Macintosh, Windows and UNIX platforms. Note that bitmap images (e.g. screenshots) should not be converted to EPS, since this will result in a much larger file size than the equivalent JPEG, TIFF, PNG or BMP, with no increase in quality. EPS should only be used for images produced by vector-drawing applications such as Adobe Illustrator or CorelDraw. Most vector-drawing applications can be saved in, or exported as, EPS format. In case the images have been originally prepared in an Office application, such as Word or PowerPoint, then the original Office files should be directly uploaded to the site, instead of being converted to JPEG or another format that may be of low quality.


7. Color Figure/Illustrations:

No charges will be levied on the use of color figures except in the reprints. Color figures should be supplied in CMYK not RGB colors. Files should not be compressed with tools such as Zipit or Stuffit prior to submission as these tools will in any case produce negligible file-size savings for JPEGs and TIFFs, which are already compressed.


Each figure must be provided with appropriate legend.


All figures must be cited sequentially in round brackets in the text and figure number should be in bold i.e. Fig. (1) or (Fig. 1).


2.29. Chemical Structures

Chemical structures must be prepared in ChemDraw/CDX and provided as separate file. The structures should fit into a width of 12.6 cm. chemical structures must be drawn in ChemDraw (CDX) / ISISDraw (TGF)) as separate files. All schemes must be cited sequentially in round brackets in the text and scheme number should be in bold i.e. Scheme (1) or (Scheme 1). Each Scheme must be provided with appropriate legend.


Drawing Settings:

Chain angle 120°


Bond spacing 18% of width


Fixed length 14.4 pt (0.500cm, 0.2in)


Bold width 2.0 pt (0.071cm, 0.0278in)


Line width 0.6 pt (0.021cm, 0.0084in)


Margin width 1.6 pt (0.096cm)


Hash spacing 2.5 pt (0.088cm, 0.0347in)


Text Settings:

Font Times New Roman


Size 8 pt


Under the Preference Choose:

Units points


Tolerances 3 pixels


Under Page Setup Use:

Paper US letter


Scale 100%


2.30. Tables

  • Data Tables should be submitted in Microsoft Word table format.

  • Each table should include a title/caption being explanatory in itself with respect to the details discussed in the table. Detailed legends may then follow.

  • Table number in bold font i.e. Table 1, should follow a title. The title should be in small case with the first letter in caps. A full stop should be placed at the end of the title.

  • Tables should be embedded in the text exactly according to their appropriate placement in the submitted chapter.

  • Columns and rows of data should be made visibly distinct by ensuring that the borders of each cell are displayed as black lines.

  • All tables must be cited sequentially in the text and table number should be in bold i.e. Table 1 or (Table 1)

  • If a reference is cited in both the table and text, a lettered footnote should be inserted in the table to refer to the numbered reference in the text.

  • Tabular data provided as additional files can be submitted as an Excel spreadsheet.

  • Format of the table is given below:


Heading Heading Heading Heading
Text Text Text Text

Table Footnotes:

Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.


2.31. Supportive/Supplementary Material

We do encourage to append supportive material, for example a PowerPoint file containing a talk about the study, a PowerPoint file containing additional screenshots, a Word, RTF, or PDF document showing the original instrument(s) used, a video, or the original data (SAS/SPSS files, Excel files, Access Db files, etc.) provided it is inevitable or endorsed by the journal's Editor.


Supportive/Supplementary material intended for publication must be numbered and referred to in the ebook/chapter but should not be a part of the submitted ebook/chapter. In-text citations as well as a section with the heading "Supportive/Supplementary Material" before the "References" section should be provided. Here, all Supportive/Supplementary Material should be listed and a brief caption line for each file describing its contents is included.


Any additional files will be linked to the final published ebook/chapter in the form supplied by the editor/author, but will not be displayed within the ebook/chapter. They will be made available in exactly the same form as originally provided only on our Web site. Please also make sure that each additional file is a single table, figure or movie (please do not upload linked worksheets or PDF files larger than one sheet). Supportive/ Supplementary material must be provided in a single zipped file not larger than 4 MB.


Editors/Authors must clearly indicate if these files are not for publication but meant for the reviewers'/editors' perusal only.


2.31.1. Note for the Editor(S)/Author(S)

The ebook must be written in English (American or U.K. spelling), in a clear, direct and active style. All pages must be numbered sequentially, facilitating in the reviewing and editing of the ebook/chapter. Authors from non-English speaking countries should collaborate with English speaking colleagues who can check and improve the language, style and grammar of the ebook. Alternatively, for English language and grammatical corrections, editors/authors may also contact Eureka Science.


Submission of an ebook/chapter entails that the work has not been published previously nor is under consideration for publication elsewhere. Submission of any content to Bentham Science Publishers (BSP) will automatically transfer all rights for publication, selling and distribution in all forms of media (electronic and printed, etc) to BSP. It is the responsibility of the person submitting the contents to have prior written consent of the organization/person where/by whom the work was carried out.


It is assumed that the editor has reviewed and accepted the contents submitted by chapter/contributing authors prior to final submission of the ebook/chapter to BSP. The Publisher will not be responsible for technical or scientific editing of the ebook contents.


It is imperative that before submission, authors should carefully proofread the ebook/chapter content files for special characters, mathematical symbols, Greek letters, equations, tables, references and images, to ensure that they appear in proper order and format.


Before submitting your ebook, use the following Author Checklist to make sure you have taken care of all the particulars.


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