Current Trends of the Supercritical Fluid Technology in the Pharmaceutical, Nutraceutical and Food Processing Industries


by

Ana Rita C. Duarte

DOI: 10.2174/97816080504681100101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-046-8, 2009
ISBN: 978-1-60805-661-3

  
  


Indexed in: Scopus

Supercritical fluid technology can be seen as a green and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional. Current information on...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

Foreword , Pp. i

Jacques Fages

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Preface , Pp. ii

Ana Rita C. Duarte and Catarina M. M. Duarte.

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Contributors , Pp. iii

Ana Rita C. Duarte and Catarina M. M. Duarte

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Introduction to Supercritical Fluids: Basic Principles and Applications , Pp. 1-7 (7)

M. Nunes da Ponte

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Applications of Supercritical Expansion Processes for Particle Formation , Pp. 8-15 (8)

Ana Rita C. Duarte

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Supercritical Anti-Solvent Micronization: Control of Morphology and Particle Size , Pp. 16-28 (13)

Ernesto Reverchon and Iolanda De Marco

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Particles from Gas-Saturated Solutions and Related Methods for Particle Engineering , Pp. 29-40 (12)

A. R. Sampaio de Sousa and Catarina M. M. Duarte

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Fundamentals and Modeling of Supercritical Precipitation Processes , Pp. 41-51 (11)

Angel Martin and Maria Jose Cocero

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Supercritical Fluid Impregnation for the Preparation of Controlled Delivery Systems , Pp. 52-60 (9)

Ana Rita C. Duarte and Catarina M. M. Duarte

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Ionic Liquids and Carbon Dioxide as Combined Solvents for Reactions and Separations: The Miscibility Switch , Pp. 61-70 (10)

E. Kuhne, G. J. Witkamp and C. J. Peters

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Supercritical Antisolvent Fractionation of Plant Extracts , Pp. 71-79 (9)

O. J. Catchpole, N. E. Durling, J. B. Grey, W. Eltringham and S. J. Tallon

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Mathematical Modelling of Supercritical Fluid Extraction , Pp. 80-96 (17)

H. Sovova

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Supercritical Fluid Processing in Food and Pharmaceutical Industries: Scale- Up Issues , Pp. 97-115 (19)

Fabrice Leboeuf and Frantz Deschamps

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Index , Pp. 116-117 (2)

Ana Rita C. Duarte and Catarina M. M. Duarte

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Foreword

Research into the domain of supercritical fluids (SCF) science and technology has been pursued actively for more than twenty years. The first world conference devoted to SCFs and their applications was organised by Michel Perrut, the founder and first president of the International Society for the Advancement of Supercritical Fluids (ISASF) in 1988 in Nice (France). Since then, 9 symposia in this series have been held and numerous others are organised all over the world, testifying to the vigour of this field.

Both fundamental and applied research have provided subjects for an exponentially increasing number of papers in specialised journals. However, quite curiously, textbooks devoted to this area remain rather scarce.

At first, the applications dealt essentially with extraction of natural products. But gradually several other domains appeared: material processing (both organic including polymers and inorganic), hydrothermal oxidation and synthesis, particle design, porous media, biomedical applications, chemical and enzymatic reactions, waste and biomass valorisation processes, new catalysts and hybrid materials, and many more.

Among the industrial sectors, pharmacy, cosmetics and agro-food appear to have a prominent place. Especially, particle formation (submicronic, monodisperse,…) and solid formulation (emulsions, coating, encapsulation,…) have attracted recent, innovative and promising developments.

This book updating the knowledge of supercritical fluid technology in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and food processing is therefore particularly welcome.

At the university of Lisbon, at the beginning of the 21st century, a group headed by Catarina Duarte has specialised in nutraceuticals and related areas and became progressively one of the reference teams in this area. With the help of a former student of hers, Ana Rita Duarte, now working at the university of Minho, they took the excellent initiative to edit this new book. All the contributors of the 10 chapters are renowned specialists in their respective fields and these chapters encompass both the scientific and engineering issues.

There is little doubt that this book will rapidly become essential for both students and researchers willing to remain at the very front line of scientific progress in the fast moving area of supercritical fluid science and technology.

Jacques Fages
Professor
ISASF president
RAPSODEE research centre
Ecole des Mines
Albi, France


Preface

With world-wide concern for environmental issues, there is a growing opportunity for the utilisation of supercritical fluid (SCF) technologies as green alternatives to conventional processes currently used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries.

The application of supercritical fluids as an alternative to conventional precipitation and extraction processes has been an active field of research and innovation during the past decades. The main motivation for this has been the possibility of exploiting the peculiar properties of supercritical fluids, which are often described as intermediate between those of a liquid and a gas, easily changeable with small modifications in operating conditions, namely pressure and temperature. In the case of carbon dioxide (the most used supercritical solvent), the supercritical region can be achieved at moderate conditions of pressure and tempreature, avoiding the degradation of thermolabile substances and providing simultaneously an inert medium suitable for processing easily oxidable compounds. Moreover, the use of the supercritical fluid eliminates or reduces the use of toxic or contaminant organic solvents and the elimination of the supercritical fluid from the final product can be easily accomplished by a simple depressurization.

It has become evident that the identification synthesis or isolation of active components is not sufficient to ensure progress in drug therapy. Considerable effort has been devoted to the development of novel approaches for the delivery and administration of organic active agents. Particle and delivery systems design are major developments of supercritical fluids applications. Because of their high diffusivity, high solvent power and low viscosity, SCFs can be used as solvents or antisolvents to micronize bioactive compounds and bioerodible polymers, and impregnate or encapsulate drugs in biocompatible matrices (natural or synthetic polymers, waxes and fats). The continuous formation of solids following the rapid expansion of a highly compressible supercritical solution is an interesting alternative to conventional crystallization methods used in the pharmaceutical industry (spray-drying, jet milling and grinding). Through the rapid expansion process, a dramatic change of the solute supersaturation is created causing subsequente precipitation of small particles with a narrow size distribution. Also the possibility of using supercritical fluid technology for the formation of composite micro/nano-spheres/capsules and impregnation of different polymers has been explored by various researchers for a number of years now.

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has being explored for production of ever-widening ranges of concentrated natural extracts, with positive physiological activity. In fact, the concern on health care created a major opportunity market for natural products with specific health effects and there has been considerable interest in the last decade in switching from synthetic to natural substances in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

This book aims to contribute to disseminate knowledge related with the application of supercritical fluid technology in the development of “clean” separation processes and preparation of delivery devices, with applications in the pharmaceutical and other emergent industries (such as the nutraceutical and cosmeceutical).

We would like to express our gratitude to the authors of each chapter, without whom this publication wouldn’t be possible.

Ana Rita C. Duarte
Catarina M. M. Duarte

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Ana Rita C. Duarte
University of Minho
Portugal




Co-Editor(s):
Catarina Maria Martins Duarte
Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica
Portugal




Contributor(s):
A. Martín
High Pressure Processes Group. Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology
University of Valladolid
Spain


A.R.C. Duarte
Researcher, 3B’s Research Group, Department of Polymer Engineering
University of Minho
Portugal


A.R.S. de Sousa
Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Portugal


C.M.M. Duarte
Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Portugal


C.J. Peters
Chemical Engineering Department
The Petroleum Institute
Abu Dhabi
UAE


E. Kühne
Fluid Flow and Flow Assurance, Shell Global Solutions International B.V.
The Netherlands


E. Reverchon
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare
Università degli Studi di Salerno
Italy


F. Deschamps
Separex
France


F. Lebouef
Separex
France


G.J. Witkamp
Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering
Laboratory for Process Equipment, Delft University of Technology
The Netherlands


H. Sovova
Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR
Czech Repub.


I. de Marco
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare
Università degli Studi di Salerno
Italy


J.B. Grey
Industrial Research Limited
N.Z.


M.J. Cocero
High Pressure Processes Group. Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology
University of Valladolid
Spain


N.E. Durling
Industrial Research Limited
N.Z.


O.J. Catchpole
Industrial Research Limited
N.Z.


S.J. Tallon
Industrial Research Limited
N.Z.


W. Eltringham
Industrial Research Limited
N.Z.




Reviews

Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, March 2011, Vol.10, Issue No.3.


http://omicron.ch.tuiasi.ro/EEMJ/pdfs/vol10/no3/18_Book_review_SFE.pdf


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