Multifunctional Two- and Three-Dimensional Polycrystalline X-Ray Diffractometry


by

Qiuzi Cong , Xiang Yu, Li He

DOI: 10.2174/97816080507651110101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-076-5, 2011
ISBN: 978-1-60805-625-5

  
  


Indexed in: Chemical Abstracts

A novel X-ray diffraction (XRD) theory is intensively revealed in this book. The theory will extend present XRD view from one dimensio...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

Foreword , Pp. i

Yan-Bin Wang
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Preface , Pp. ii

Cong Qiuzi, Yu Xiang and He Li
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Contributors , Pp. iii

Cong Qiuzi, Yu Xiang and He Li
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Essential Properties of X-Rays , Pp. 1-7 (7)

Cong Qiuzi, Yu Xiang and He Li
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Knowledge of Crystal Structure , Pp. 8-16 (9)

Cong Qiuzi, Yu Xiang and He Li
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Bragg’s Law and Multifunctional 2D X-Ray Diffractometry , Pp. 17-33 (17)

Cong Qiuzi, Yu Xiang and He Li
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Fundamentals of X-Ray Phase Analysis , Pp. 34-41 (8)

Cong Qiuzi, Yu Xiang and He Li
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Qualitative Phase Analysis , Pp. 42-52 (11)

Cong Qiuzi, Yu Xiang and He Li
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Quantitative Phase Analysis , Pp. 53-63 (11)

Cong Qiuzi, Yu Xiang and He Li
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Fundamentals of 2D X-Ray Diffraction Theory , Pp. 64-73 (10)

Cong Qiuzi, Yu Xiang and He Li
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Depth/Azimuth-Resolved Multiple-XRD Patterns for Nanomaterials , Pp. 74-83 (10)

Cong Qiuzi, Yu Xiang and He Li
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Residual Stresses/Strains Analysis , Pp. 84-96 (13)

Cong Qiuzi, Yu Xiang and He Li
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Modified Scherrer Equation for Small Crystallites , Pp. 97-104 (8)

Cong Qiuzi, Yu Xiang and He Li
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Weighted-Strain-Breadth Equation for Imperfect Materials , Pp. 105-111 (7)

Cong Qiuzi, Yu Xiang and He Li
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Evaluation of Instrument Broadening , Pp. 112-117 (6)

Cong Qiuzi, Yu Xiang and He Li
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Principle of Superposition of Profiles , Pp. 118-126 (9)

Cong Qiuzi, Yu Xiang and He Li
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Features of 3D X-Ray Diffractometry , Pp. 127-138 (12)

Cong Qiuzi, Yu Xiang and He Li
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Demonstration of Resonance Effect by Bragg's Law , Pp. 139-149 (11)

Cong Qiuzi, Yu Xiang and He Li
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Mass Absorption Coefficient and Density of the Element , Pp. 150-151 (2)

Cong Qiuzi, Yu Xiang and He Li
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List of Principal Symbols , Pp. 152-153 (2)

Cong Qiuzi, Yu Xiang and He Li
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Fundamental Physics Constants , Pp. 154

Cong Qiuzi, Yu Xiang and He Li
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Index , Pp. 155-157 (3)

Cong Qiuzi, Yu Xiang and He Li
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Foreword

X-ray diffractometry (XRD), a nondestructive technique, is an essential scientific tool capable of supplying users with fundamental data and information unobtainable by other techniques, and exhibits increasing usages and attracts intensive attention in modern science and technology. The complete cognition of many potentialities of XRD, however, requires an elementary knowledge of crystallography and X-ray science. Admittedly, certain routine applications of X-ray diffraction demand only little or no familiarity with this field, but most researchers want to go beyond these push-button applications and to use various techniques as powerful aids in both pure and applied research. This e-book aims at: (1) revealing theories and applicable skills of the novel two-dimensional and three-dimensional (2D/3D) X-ray diffractometry for the structure characterization of material by providing an intuitive understanding of the description of instruments and methods, as well as a set of general mathematical models; (2) bridging present gaps between the basic texts and the specialist works.

Based on asymmetrical-Bragg diffraction geometry which contains basic elements, a set of universal mathematical model has been built up, where two equations on the desired azimuth angle and a common scan mode are included. Compared with the previous literature, unique characters of this technique are: (1) multifunction; (2) simplicity of measurement; (3) depth/azimuth-resolved X-ray patterns for coatings; (4) texture measurement (rather than in the pole-figure method); and (5) profile analysis for size-strain broadening (not in the fitted - profile method). In addition, by reading the corresponding chapters it is possible to obtain many applications in five main fields.

This book presented by Professor Cong Q.Z. et al provides a broad overview of 2D and 3D X-ray diffractometry and addresses the aforementioned points. Chapters written in respective fields enable the reader to be acquainted with a variety of topics ranging from the fingerprint characterization of crystalline materials to the determination of polycrystalline structure. The book is particularly useful to basic investigators, undergraduates, postgraduates, workers and experts interested in the latest advances in this exciting field.

Yan-Bin Wang
Dean of Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry
University of Science and Technology Beijing


Preface

This book covers many aspects of 2D and 3D X-ray diffractometry, through suggesting a rational gist, establishing a set of general mathematical models, and extending multi-operation modes, in order to meet the requirements of providing fingerprints and structure characterizations of various materials. The book tries to form the basis of a modern course of XRD.

This book includes five parts consisting of fifteen chapters. Part I deals with the general concept of properties of X-rays, structure of crystals, essential knowledge of X-ray diffraction, and principles of superposition of wave motions. Conventional X-ray phase analysis methods of oriented specimens are introduced in Part II. Part III based on principles of the asymmetrical Bragg reflection geometry is the focal point of this work; four formulas are constructed including the intensity equation, azimuth-angle equation, a common scan mode, as well as the Bragg equation. The main applications are stated in Part IV, a new so-called weighted-strain breadth combined with the weighted-mean-dimension is introduced for solving size-strain broadening problems, which makes the profile analysis in straight measurements possible. Part V, Development of Diffraction Theories in XRD, summarizes the multifunctional 1D ~3D XRD in real space and describes the resonance effect demonstrated by Bragg's law.

This book lays stress on the X-ray analyses for natural and synthetic materials. The relations between the structure of matter and its diffraction of X-rays are expected to be embodied in a simple principle valid for all materials. This book also bridges the gaps between basic texts and specialist works, non-mathematical major readers can readily know the meaning according to their own research interests and experiences.

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of this book from (i) State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, and State Key Laboratory of Oxo Synthesis & Selective Oxidation, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences; (ii) Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET-08-0829); (iii) A Foundation for the Author of National Excellent Doctoral Dissertation of PR China (FANEDD-2009069); (iv) National Natural Science Foundation of China with Grant No. 51071143 and (v) The Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities. Professor Liu W.M. and many others have helped us too. Special thanks are due to Professor Jiang T. L. for her careful revision of the manuscript.

Cong Qiuzi, Yu Xiang and He Li

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Qiuzi Cong
Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, (LICP) of Chinese Academy of Sciences
China


Xiang Yu
China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
China


Li He
Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, (LICP) of Chinese Academy of Sciences
China




Contributor(s):
Cong Qiu Zi
Professor, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of sciences
Lanzhou
MA, 730000
China


Cong Fang
Senior Engineer, Genuineways Intellectual Property Agency
Beijing , 100005
China


He Li
Assistant Professor, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of sciences
Lanzhou , 730000
China


Weng Li Jun
Professor, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of sciences
Lanzhou , 730000
China


Wang Jun An
Professor, Ph.D, Material Institute, Shanghai University
University of Western Australia
Shanghai , 200072
China


Yu Xiang
Associate Professor, PhD Supervisor, School of Engineering and Technology, China University of Geosciences (Beijing)
Beijing , 100083
China


Yu De Yang
Professor, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of sciences
Aalborg University
Lanzhou , 730000
China




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