Metallic Oxynitride Thin Films by Reactive Sputtering and Related Deposition Methods: Process, Properties and Applications


by

Filipe Vaz, Nicolas Martin, Martin Fenker

DOI: 10.2174/97816080515641130101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-156-4, 2013
ISBN: 978-1-60805-157-1

  
  




Oxynitride thin film technology is rapidly impacting a broad spectrum of applications, ranging from decorative functions (through opto...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

About the Editors , Pp. i-iii (3)

Filipe Vaz, Nicolas Martin and Martin Fenker

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Foreword , Pp. iv

Allan Matthews

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Preface , Pp. v-vii (3)

Filipe Vaz, Nicolas Martin and Martin Fenker

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List of Contributors , Pp. viii-xi (4)

Filipe Vaz, Nicolas Martin and Martin Fenker

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Modelling of Reactive Sputter Deposition of Oxynitrides , Pp. 3-26 (24)

Sören Berg, Tomas Nyberg and Diederik Depla

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Reactive Gas Pulsing Process for Oxynitride Thin Films , Pp. 27-50 (24)

Nicolas Martin, Jan Lintymer, Aurélien Besnard and Fabrice Sthal

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Exploring the Potential of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering for Tailoring the Chemical Composition and the Properties in Metal Oxynitride Films , Pp. 51-63 (13)

Kostas Sarakinos

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Tuneable Properties of Zirconium Oxynitride Thin Films , Pp. 64-112 (49)

Pedro Carvalho, Luis Cunha, Nuno Pessoa Barradas, Eduardo Alves, Juan Pedro Espinós and Filipe Vaz

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Gradual Evolution of the Properties in Titanium Oxynitride Thin Films , Pp. 113-132 (20)

Jean-Marie Chappé and Nicolas Martin

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Growth and Characterization of Chromium Oxynitride Thin Films Prepared Using Reactive Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering in Presence of Air as Reactive Gas , Pp. 133-162 (30)

Saïd Agouram, Guy Terwagne and Franz Bodart

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A Comprehensive Study of the Properties of Sputtered NbOxNy Thin Films , Pp. 163-194 (32)

Martin Fenker

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Tuneable Properties of Aluminium Oxynitride Thin Films , Pp. 195-229 (35)

Joel Borges, Nuno P. Barradas, Eduardo Alves, Nicolas Martin, Marie-France Beaufort, Sophie Camelio, Dominique Eyidi, Thierry Girardeau, Fabien Paumier, Jean-Paul Rivière, Filipe Vaz and Luis Marques

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HfSiON Films Deposited by Radio Frequency Reactive Sputtering , Pp. 230-253 (24)

Li-Ping Feng and Zheng-Tang Liu

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Properties of Oxynitride Thin Films for Biomedical Applications , Pp. 254-264 (11)

Martin Fenker

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Oxynitrides and Oxides Deposited by Cathodic Vacuum Arc , Pp. 265-284 (20)

Jörg Vetter

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Application of Oxynitrides for Microelectronic Devices and Gas Barriers , Pp. 285-339 (55)

Yung-Hsien Wu and Jia-Hong Huang

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Author Index , Pp. 340-341 (2)

Filipe Vaz, Nicolas Martin and Martin Fenker

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Subject Index , Pp. 342-345 (4)

Filipe Vaz, Nicolas Martin and Martin Fenker

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Foreword

Due to their excellent physical, chemical and mechanical properties, metal oxynitride coatings hold considerable promise for a very wide range of applications, from electronic devices through to tribological surfaces for cutting tools. This text sets out, for the first time together in a single book, leading-edge research into the modelling, deposition and applications of oxynitride thin films. The layout of the book is wellstructured, moving from modelling and simulation, through film synthesis and then to applications issues. The Chapters are all written by leading experts in this research field and the book is edited by three leading research specialists in advanced coating processes: Prof. Filipe Vaz, Prof. Nicolas Martin and Dr. Martin Fenker.

There is a need, in the case of all possible applications for oxynitride coatings, to develop improved deposition methods which allow the achievement of desired coating properties through effective control of structures and phase compositions. Therefore the papers in the book form a vital body of research which points the way forward not only for specific oxynitrides, but also provides generic information which will be applicable across all possible combinations of elements within this materials system. The Chapters are at the leading edge in their respective subject areas, and include comprehensive information on different deposition methods and how they can be used to optimise specific coating systems and achieve precise properties and to fulfil the needs of different applications.

The book is particularly useful as it includes information on the background history and previously published literature on particular coatings and processes. It therefore provides the reader with the knowledge needed to understand and develop metal oxynitride deposition processes, supported by an understanding of previous work in the field. It is invaluable to those who are just entering this research area, as well as those who have been actively researching metal oxynitrides for some time.

This book is a vital text for anyone who has an interest in the production, analysis and use of metal oxyntride thin films.

Allan Matthews
Surface Engineering
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
University of Sheffield
Sheffield, UK


Preface

Ceramic thin films based on metal nitrides and oxides are established materials with numerous industrial applications and still with a promising future, in addition to being materials of great interest to the academic and industrial communities. Although most of their applications are relatively recent, the metal nitrides and oxides have been known for almost a century. The industrial importance of the metal nitrides and oxides keeps growing rapidly, not only in the traditional and well-established applications based on the strength and refractory nature of these materials such as cutting tools and abrasives, but also in new and promising fields such as electronics and optoelectronics.

Recently, and using the idea of merging the benefits of the basic characteristics of both metal nitrides and oxides, a new class of materials is gaining more and more relevance in several technological applications, the metal oxynitrides, MeNxOy. Their relevance arises from the fact that the addition of oxygen to MeNx allows the tailoring of film properties between those of metal nitrides, MeNx, and those of the correspondent insulating oxides, MeOy. Tuning the oxygen/nitrogen ratio allows playing with the band gap, the electronic conductivity, and the crystallographic order between oxide and nitride and hence the electronic and (micro)structural properties of the materials, and thus the overall set of properties. These metal oxynitrides are now investigated in several research groups and technologically developed and applied. They open up new industrial possibilities in several different fields, taking profit of the extended range of properties that arise for the mixing of the basic characteristics of both nitrides and oxides in one material.

Oxynitride thin films are either emerging or about to emerge from the research laboratory to become commercially available finding various practical applications. No textbook outlining the basic theoretical background, the methods of fabrication and applications currently exist. Thus, this book aims at presenting an in-depth overview of this topic covering a broad range of oxynitride thin films technologies including simple approaches like sputtering targets with a mixture of two reactive gases to more complex ones such as gas and power pulsing ones, presented in a systematic fashion, by the scientific leaders in the respective domains. The main purpose is to provide a systematic and an in-depth overview of the topic, on both a high and current level. It offers information on the physical basics as well as the latest results in a compact yet comprehensive manner. It covers a broad range of related topics, from physical principles to design, fabrication, characterization, and possible applications in various types of devices. The book was written by and for scientists and engineers from all the areas related to the synthesis and application of Metallic Oxynitride Thin Films, which is intended to serve as a cross-disciplinary major reference work. The book will also serve as a valuable introduction to undergraduate and graduate students interested in oxynitride thin film technology. The contributions cover the physical processes involved in development of metal oxynitrides, from a growth point of view, via their atomic structures and the related production characteristics right up to some future industrial applications. We hope that this book will be useful to the multitude of disciplines represented by the vacuum coaters and will bring a highly pertinent tool for anyone working in the applied materials research or the modern industry. In particular, it is intended for researchers in thin film processing who want to fill knowledge gaps. Knowledge, which is specific to oxynitride compounds, from their synthesis to their resulting behaviors.

The first three chapters deal with the reactive sputtering process as an attractive way to fabricate metal oxynitride thin films. Modeling of such a complex process is especially surveyed and pulsing approaches (gas and power) appear as original experimental procedures to achieve tunable oxynitride compounds. The next five chapters provide a brief description yet pithy of different oxynitride systems: zirconium, titanium, chromium, niobium and aluminum. Each of these chapters describes the physico-chemical properties and the structural modifications induced by a systematic change of the metalloid contents in the films. The functional properties are also assessed in connection to the main characteristics of the oxynitrides. The last four chapters address a non-exhaustive overview of promising applications in various fields such as optoelectronics, biomedicals, gas barriers, decorative and wear resistance, microelectronic devices …

Combining production related issues and a selection of some successful applications; this comprehensive source will give you a unique perspective to the fascinating field where nanoscale materials and their various synthesis methods meet. Intended to be a reference work of this magnitude, it provides a broad, yet in-depth perspective of numerous facets. For all this, the editors wish to thank all the authors of the chapters for their important contribution, as well as for updating the final stage of the book publishing. Our warmest thanks go to the partners of the “Hardecoat” European project who indirectly motivated us to initiate this book. Finally, we want to thank Prof. Allan Matthews for taking his time to write the foreword.

Filipe Vaz
Minho University
Portugal

Nicolas Martin
National Engineering School ENSMM
France

Martin Fenker
FEM Forschungsinstitut Edelmetalle & Metallchemi
Germany

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Filipe Vaz
Minho University
Portugal


Nicolas Martin
National Engineering School ENSMM
France


Martin Fenker
FEM Forschungsinstitut Edelmetalle & Metallchemie
Germany




Contributor(s):
Agouram Said
Department of Applied Physics and Electromagnetism
Univesitat de Valencia
C./ Dr. Moliner N 50
Burjassot, 46100
Spain


Alves Eduardo
Instituto Superior Técnico/ITN, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, E.N. 10
Sacavém, 2686-953
Portugal


Barradas N. Pessoa
Instituto Superior Técnico/ITN, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, E.N. 10
Sacavém, 2686-953
Portugal


Beaufort Marie-France
Département de Physique et Mécanique des Matériaux
Institut PRIME - UPR 3346 CNRS, Université de Poitiers-ENSMA
Bât. SP2MI - Téléport 2, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex,
France


Berg Sören
Solid State Electronics Division, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University
Box 534
Uppsala, 75121
Sweden


Besnard Aurélien
LaBoMaP, Centre Arts et Métiers ParisTech de Cluny
Rue porte de Paris
Cluny, 71250
France


Bodart Franz
Department of Physics, LARN, FUNDP
61, Rue de Bruxelles
Namur, 5000
Belgium


Borges Joel
Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho
Braga, 4710-057
Portugal


Camelio Sophie
Département de Physique et Mécanique des Matériaux
Institut PRIME - UPR 3346 CNRS, Université de Poitiers-ENSMA
Bât. SP2MI - Téléport 2, BP 30179
Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex, 86962
France


Carvalho Pedro
Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho
Chappé Jean-Marie
Braga, 4710-057
Portugal


Cunha Luis
Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho
Braga, 4710-057
Portugal


Depla Diederik
Department of Solid State Sciences
Ghent University
Krijgslaan, 281(S1)
Ghent, 9000
Belgium


Espinos J. Pedro
Instituto de Cienca de Materiales de Sevilla
CSIC University Sevilla, Avda Américo Vespucio s/n
Sevilla, 41092
Spain


Eyidi Dominique
Département de Physique et Mécanique des Matériaux, Bât. SP2MI - Téléport 2, BP 30179
Institut PRIME - UPR 3346 CNRS, Université de Poitiers-ENSMA
Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex, 86962
France


Feng Li-Ping
State Key Lab of Solidification Processing, College of Materials Science and Engineering
Northwestern Polytechnical University
Xi’an, 710072
People’s Republic of China


Fenker Martin
FEM – Forschungsinstitut Edelmetalle und Metallchemie
Katharinenstrabe 17
Schwäbisch Gmünd, 73525
Germany


Girardeau Thierry
Département de Physique et Mécanique des Matériaux, Bât. SP2MI - Téléport 2, BP 30179
Institut PRIME - UPR 3346 CNRS, Université de Poitiers-ENSMA
Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex, 86962
France


Huang Jia-Hong
Department of Engineering and System Science
National Tsing Hua University
101, Kuang Fu Road, Section 2
Hsinchu
Taiwan, R.O.C


Lintymer Jan
Comadur SA, Le Col 33, 2400 Le Locle
Switzerland


Liu Zheng-Tang
State Key Lab of Solidification Processing, College of Materials Science and Engineering
Northwestern Polytechnical University
Xi’an, 710072
People’s Republic of China


Marques Luis
Centro de Física
Universidade do Minho
Braga, 4710-057
Portugal


Liu Zheng-Tang
Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho
Braga, 4710-057
Portugal


Martin Nicolas
Institut FEMTO-ST, Département MN2S, 32, Avenue de l’observatoire
Northwestern Polytechnical University
Besançon Cedex, 25044
France


Nyberg Tomas
Solid State Electronics Division, The Ångström Laboratory
Uppsala University
Box 534
Uppsala, 75121
Sweden


Paumier Fabien
Département de Physique et Mécanique des Matériaux,
Institut PRIME - UPR 3346 CNRS, Université de Poitiers-ENSMA
Bât. SP2MI - Téléport 2, BP 30179
Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex, 86962
France


Riviere Jean-Paul
Département de Physique et Mécanique des Matériaux
Institut PRIME - UPR 3346 CNRS, Université de Poitiers-ENSMA
Bât. SP2MI - Téléport 2, BP 30179
Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex, 86962
France


Sarakinos Kostas
Plasma and Coatings Physics Division, Linköping University
Linköping, 58183
Sweden


Sthal Fabrice
Département Temps-Fréquence
Institut FEMTO-ST
26, Rue de l’épitaphe
Besançon Cedex
France


Terwagne Guy
Department of Physics, LARN, FUNDP
61, Rue de Bruxelles
Namur, 5000
Belgium


Vaz Filipe
Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho
Braga, 4710-057
Portugal


Vetter Jörg
Sulzer Metaplas GmbH, Am Böttcherberg 30-38
Bergisch Gladbach, 51427
Germany


Wu Yung-Hsien
Department of Engineering and System Science
National Tsing Hua University
101, Kuang Fu Road, Section 2
Hsinchu
Taiwan, R.O.C




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