Latest Findings of Omega-3 Long Chain-Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: From Molecular Mechanisms to New Applications in Health and Diseases


by

Maricela R. Cruz

DOI: 10.2174/97816080517791110101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-177-9, 2011
ISBN: 978-1-60805-356-8

  
  


Indexed in: Scopus, Chemical Abstracts

This E-book covers the main aspects about the benefits of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) to human health. T...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

Foreword , Pp. i

Maricela Rodriguez-Cruz and Mardia Lopez-Alarcon
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Preface , Pp. ii

Salvador Villalpando
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Contributors , Pp. iii-iv (2)

Maricela Rodriguez-Cruz and Mardia Lopez Alarcon
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Moleculars Mechanisms for the Synthesis and Genetic Regulation of Long- Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids , Pp. 1-10 (10)

Maricela Rodriguez-Cruz
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Role of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Pregnancy and Lactation: Fetal and Infant Growth , Pp. 11-22 (12)

Maricela Rodriguez-Cruz
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The Role of n-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Cognitive Function , Pp. 23-38 (16)

Chih-Chiang Chiu, Robert J Stewart and Shih-Yi Huang
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Beneficial Roles of the n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on the Management of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome , Pp. 39-45 (7)

Mardia Lopez-Alarcon, Mariela Bernabe-Garcia and Javier Mancilla-Ramirez
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Effects of n-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation on Insulin Resistance , Pp. 46-57 (12)

Maria Teresa Villarreal-Molina and Samuel Canizales-Quinteros
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Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) as the "Mind-Body Interface" in Cardiovascular Diseases and Depression , Pp. 58-65 (8)

Jane Pei-Chen Chang and Kuan-Pin Su
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Clinical Evidence of Beneficial Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Allergy and Asthma , Pp. 66-77 (12)

Blanca Estela Del Rio Navarro, Dino Roberto Pietropaolo Cienfuegos and Marco Antonio Gongora Melendez
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Recommendations and Sources of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids , Pp. 78-91 (14)

Mariela Bernabe-Garcia and Mardia Lopez-Alarcon
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Subject Index , Pp. 92-95 (4)

Maricela Rodriguez-Cruz, Mardia Lopez Alarcon and Mardia Lopez Alarcon
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Foreword

The growing interest on this group of these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from the alpha linolenic acid known generically as omega-3 fatty acids is due to their ubiquity in many bodily functions both, in health and disease. Those functions include its role as integral part of cell membranes and its diverse role as biochemical signal involved in the neural development, conductivity of the electric system of the heart, coagulation, chronic inflammation involving asthma, cardiovascular risk and certain type of cancers and modulating gene expression among others. Omega-3 fatty acids are of particular interest for developing countries, because the typical dietary intake is inadequately low in many of those countries. At the same time their burden of diseases include a high proportion of cardiovascular diseases, asthma and other linked to low intensity inflammation, that may be alleviated by the anti-inflammatory capacity of an adequate nutritional status of Omega-3 fatty and a good balance with its pro-inflammatory Omega-6 counterparts.

The editors of this book have made a very comprehensive effort to provide readers with a state-of-the art review of many of those topics, gathering an excellent roster of international experts, including the experience of their research group. This Mexican research group has an international reputation because of their seminal contributions, among others, the demonstration that elongases and desaturases were present in the mammary gland, inferring that downstream Omega-3 fatty acids in the milk are synthesized by the gland.

I had the privilege to witness the evolving career of both editors, Maricela Rodriguez-Cruz and Mardia López- Alarcon from the beginning until seeing them transformed into mature scientists. This book demonstrates their professional maturity and it is for me, an opportunity to voice out my personal pride for the opportunity I had to walk with them by the paths of science.

This book offering to readers interested in biochemical or medical aspects of Omega-3 fatty acids recent and relevant information from dietary recommendations to identified dietary sources; the impact of dietary interventions on specific health problems and biochemical details for their synthetic pathways will be of great help in better.

Salvador Villalpando M.D. ; Ph.D.


Preface

The knowledge generated about the benefits of the n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) is huge and relevant to different medical areas such as endocrinology, cardiology, pediatrics, nutrition, immunology, psychiatry and oncology. Therefore, with this book, the massive medical and scientific community will have rapid access to the related advances to their field. Thus, this book has been prepared to give details about the state of the art regarding the n-3 LC-PUFAs in nutrition and medicine, in physiology and gene regulation, their food sources and recommendations, as well as the likely protective mechanisms of these fatty acids in major diseases.

There is considerable interest in the impact of n-3 LC-PUFAs in mitigating the morbidity and mortality caused by chronic diseases. Increased intakes of n-3 LC-PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid are related with positive effects on cell and tissue function and human health. It has been demonstrated that supplementation with these fatty acids decreases blood triglycerides; slows the buildup of atherosclerotic plaques; lowers blood pressure slightly; reduces the risk of death, heart attack, and arrhythmias; improves neurological and cognitive development in newborns, decreases insulin resistance, and leads to reduction of hepatic steatosis. Beneficial effects have been observed also in human models of diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases, and lately, increased evidence about positive effects of n-3 LC-PUFAs on depression and its common comorbid physical conditions has been released. In addition, our research group has demonstrated recently that DHA administered in the acute phase of infection with sepsis, modulates cytokines production, and decreases the effect of infection on appetite protecting the nutritional status of children. Most of the health benefits of n-3 LC-PUFAs can be attributed to their influence of the physical nature of cell membranes and membrane protein-mediated responses, eicosanoid generation, cell signaling and on expression of genes involved in cellular key processes.

As it is known, n-3 LC-PUFAs are not efficiently synthesized in humans. Therefore, they need to be obtained directly from the diet. Thus, it is important to know the main sources of n-3 LC-PUFAs to promote the consumption of these fatty acids. Accordingly, based in epidemiological and clinical studies it is necessary to spread the knowledge about the recommendations of LC-PUFAs of different international health organizations such as FAO/WHO.

Authors of this book are well-recognized researchers in their specific field. All of them have made important contribution to the knowledge of the beneficial effects of n-3 LC-PUFAs at different levels. We extensively thank them for the time dedicated to the writing of this book, which we are sure will help to understand the mechanisms used by such fatty acids and their application in translational medicine.

There are some people who have helped us with the content of this book. Specifically, we thank Engineer Salomón Alarcón Fuentes by his contribution in the design of the cover. We also warmly thank our husbands and my mother for the time we stole from them for the preparation of this book.

Maricela Rodriguez-Cruz,
M.Sc, Ph. D.
Mexican Institute of Social Security
México

&

Mardia López-Alarcón, M. D., Ph. D.
Mexican Institute of Social Security
México

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Maricela R. Cruz
Mexican Institute of Social Security
México




Co-Editor(s):
Mardia López Alarcón
Mexican Institute of Social Security
México




Contributor(s):
Chih-Chiang Chiu
Department of Psychiatry
Taipei City Psychiatric Center, Taipei City Hospital
Taipei
Taiwan


Blanca Estela Del Río Navarro
Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Hospital Infantil de México "Federico Gómez"
México D.F.


Dino Roberto Pietropaolo Cienfuegos
Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Hospital Infantil de México "Federico Gómez"
México D.F.


Jane Pei-Chen Chang
Department of Psychiatry & Mind-Body Interface Laboratory (MBI-Lab)
China Medical University Hospital, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University Hospital
Taichung
Taiwan


Javier Mancilla-Ramírez
Instituto Nacional de Perinatología "Isidro Espinoza de los Reyes"
Mexico City
Mexico


Kuan-Pin Su
Department of Psychiatry & Mind-Body Interface Laboratory (MBI-Lab)
China Medical University Hospital, Graduate Institute of Neural and Cognitive Sciences
Taichung
Taiwan


Marco Antonio Góngora Meléndez
Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Hospital Infantil de México "Federico Gómez"
México D.F.


María Teresa Villarreal-Molina
Unit of Molecular Biology and Genomic Medicine
Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán
México D.F.


Mariela Bernabe-Garcia
Unidad de Investigación Médica en Nutrición
Hospital de Pediatría, C.M.N. Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
México D.F.


Robert J. Stewart
King's College London (Institute of Psychiatry)
London
UK


Samuel Canizales-Quinteros
Unit of Molecular Biology and Genomic Medicine
Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán
México D.F.


Shih-Yi Huang Navarro
School of Nutrition and Health Sciences
Taipei Medical University
Taipei
Taiwan




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