Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 4

by

Atta-ur-Rahman , Allen B. Reitz, M. Iqbal Choudhary

DOI: 10.2174/97816080520731090401
eISBN: 978-1-60805-207-3, 2009
ISBN: 978-1-60805-346-9
ISSN: 1567-2042

  
  


Indexed in: Scopus

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Table of Contents

Preface , Pp. iv-v (2)

Allen B. Reitz, M. Iqbal Choudhary and Atta-ur-Rahman
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Contributors , Pp. ix-xiii (5)

Allen B. Reitz, M. Iqbal Choudhary and Atta-ur-Rahman
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Methods for Ligand-Based Virtual Screening , Pp. 1-22 (22)

Jurgen Bajorath
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Simple Coumarins: Privileged Scaffolds in Medicinal Chemistry , Pp. 23-85 (63)

Maria Fernanda Martins Borges, Fernanda Maria Fernandes Roleira, Nuno Jorge da Silva Pereira Milhazes, Eugenio Uriarte Villare and Lourdes Santana Penin
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Chromatography and Computational Chemical Analysis for Drug Discovery , Pp. 86-129 (44)

Toshihiko Hanai
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New Therapeutic and Experimental Aspects of Chelators as Antidotes of Metal Toxicity , Pp. 130-182 (53)

Veda M. Varnai, Maja Blanusa, Martina Piasek and Krista Kostial
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Taurine Analogues: A New Class of Therapeutics , Pp. 183-213 (31)

Ramesh Chandra Gupta, Thida Win and Shmuel Bittner
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Digitalis-Like Compounds: The Discovery of the O-Aminoalkyloxime Group as a Very Powerful Substitute for the Unsaturated γ -Butyrolactone Moiety , Pp. 214-236 (23)

Mauro Gobbini and Alberto Cerri
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Combinatorial Natural Products: From Cloning to Analysis , Pp. 237-247 (11)

Paul Budworth, Julia Khandurina and Andras Guttman
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Medicinal Plants for the Prevention and Treatment of Bacterial Infections , Pp. 248-284 (37)

Gail B. Mahady
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Biologically Active Quassinoids and Their Chemistry: Potential Leads for Drug Design , Pp. 285-308 (24)

Zhengming Guo, Suryanarayana Vangapandu, Robert William Sindelar, Larry Anthony Walker and Robert David Sindelar
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Medicinal Plant Extracts and Molecules as the Source of New Anti-Snake Venom Drugs , Pp. 309-346 (38)

Andreimar M. Soares, Silvana Marcussi, Renata S. Fernandes, Danilo L. Menaldo, Tassia R. Costa, Miriam V. Lourenco,, Ana Helena Januario and Paulo S. Pereira
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Recent Advances in the Development of Selective Small Molecule Inhibitors for Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , Pp. 347-370 (24)

Hiroshi Hirai, Nobuhiko Kawanishi and Yoshikazu Iwasawa
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Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases and Their Inhibitors , Pp. 371-423 (53)

Yogesh S. Tingare, Purushottam M. Dewang, Nai-Mu Hsu, Shao-Zheng Peng and Wen-Ren Li
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Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors: A Review on Pharmacophore Mapping and (Q)SARs Results , Pp. 424-462 (39)

Christos A. Kontogiorgis, Paraskevi Papaioannou and Dimitra J. Hadjipavlou-Litina
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Drug Delivery Strategies for the Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infections , Pp. 463-490 (28)

Barbara R. Conway
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Anti-HIV Activities of Natural Antioxidant Caffeic Acid Derivatives: Toward an Antiviral Supplementation Diet , Pp. 491-505 (15)

Fabrice Bailly and Philippe Cotelle
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Recent Advances in New Structural Classes of Anti-Tuberculosis Agents , Pp. 506-540 (35)

Amit Nayyar, Sanjay R. Patel and Rahul Jain
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Applications for Peptide-Based Cancer Vaccine Design , Pp. 541-561 (21)

Eliada Lazoura, Stephanie L. Day and Vasso Apostolopoulos
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Telomerase Inhibition and Cancer: Might Platinum Based Drugs Have a Future as Anti-Telomerase Pharmacological Approach? , Pp. 562-586 (25)

Donato Colangelo and Domenico Osella
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Recent Developments in the Field of Non Peptidic α vβ 3 Antagonists , Pp. 587-618 (32)

Barbara Cacciari, Pamela Crepaldi, Stephanie Federico and Giampiero Spalluto
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Non-Hydroxamate Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors , Pp. 619-641 (23)

Takayoshi Suzuki and Naoki Miyata
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New Lipid-Lowering Agents Acting on LDL Receptors , Pp. 642-660 (19)

Hubert Scharnagl, Tatjana Stojakovic and Winfried Marz
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Recent Developments in the Medicinal Chemistry of Cannabimimetic Indoles, Pyrroles and Indenes , Pp. 661-687 (27)

John W. Huffman and Lea W. Padgett
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Novel Therapies for Asthma - Advances and Problem , Pp. 688-706 (19)

Garry M. Walsh
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Drugs to Treat Inflammation: A Historical Overview , Pp. 707-729 (23)

Michael Whitehouse
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Drug Development and Diagnostics for Alzheimer's Disease Up to 2008 , Pp. 730-766 (37)

Nicole Hottecke, Stefanie Baumann, Ali Taghavi, Hannes A. Braun and Boris Schmidt
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Therapeutic Opportunities in Alzheimer Disease: Current Concepts , Pp. 767-788 (22)

Michael W. Marlatt, Paula I. Moreira, Hyoung-gon Lee, Gemma Casadesus, Rudy J. Castellani, Atsushi Takeda, Akihiko Nunomura,, Xiongwei Zhu, George Perry and Mark A. Smith
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N-Hydroxyurea and Acyl Nitroso Compounds as Nitroxyl (HNO) and Nitric Oxide (NO) Donors , Pp. 789-804 (16)

S. Bruce King
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New Anticonvulsant Agents , Pp. 805-841 (37)

Barbara Malawska
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Selective Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors , Pp. 842-882 (41)

Haitao Ji, Erik P. Erdal, Elizabeth A. Litzinger, Jiwon Seo, Yaoqiu Zhu, Fengtian Xue, Jianguo Fang, Jinwen Huang and Richard B. Silverman
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Preface

This fourth volume of Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry is an online compendium of 29 of the most influential publications in the journals Current Medicinal Chemistry, Current Pharmaceutical Design, and Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry during the year 2005. All of the authors have had the chance to update their original manuscripts to reflect more recent development in their fields, and most have availed themselves of that opportunity. The challenge that all of us face in modern drug discovery and medicinal chemistry is to beat the odds: to maintain and even increase productivity in the face of scientific, financial and regulatory challenges.

Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 4 is organized into eight sections. The first three sections cover general topics of strategy and mechanism, and the last five involve specific therapeutic categories. The first set of general sections includes General Principles and Strategies, Natural Products Research and Enzyme Inhibitors. The introductory article by J. Bajorath is a comprehensive and general review of computations approaches to medicinal chemistry by the use of ligand-based virtual screening. Other topics in the first and second sections include consideration of metal chelators in drug discovery and the evaluation and relevance of specific classes of natural products, a resurgent area of research. The third section on Enzyme Inhibitors is a collection of three manuscripts which could themselves have been put into specific therapeutic categories, but have been clustered together here because they target kinases, phosphatases and matrix metalloproteinases, protein families with broad reach across multiple therapeutic areas.

The final five sections cover the specific therapeutic categories of Anti- Infectives, Oncology, Vascular Research, Inflammation Research and Central Nervous System Disorders. The infectious diseases reviewed are Helicobacter pylori, HIV and tuberculosis. The Oncology section has an article on vaccine design by Lazoura et al. followed by three standard mechanism-based topics. The Vascular entries include the lipid-lowering approach for the prevention of heart attacks and stroke and nitric oxide donors for sickle cell disease. The Inflammation section reviews historical anti-inflammatory approaches and asthma in particular. Topics highlighted in the Central Nervous System section include two reviews on the prevalent and devastating neurological disorder of Alzheimer's disease. Also covered in this section are neuronal nitric oxide inhibitors, and the medicinal chemistry of the endo-cannabinoid system with applications in various fields including the management of pain.

Medicinal Chemistry is a vibrant and exciting field of study as represented by the contributions in this current volume. Our discipline is continuing to grow and evolve such as with the newer concepts of fragment-based drug discovery and ligand efficiency. We have the privilege to collaborate with pharmacologists, biochemists, process chemists, patent attorneys, toxicologists and eventually clinicians, all with the common goal to discover and introduce into therapy new molecular entities to treat patients with unmet medical needs.

ALLEN B. REITZ
JProfessor of Chemical Biology
Institute of Hepatitus and Virus Research
3805 Old Easton Rd.
Doylestown, PA 18902
USA

ATTA-UR-RAHMAN
International Center for Chemical and
Biological Sciences
(HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry
Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular
Medicine & Drug Research)
University of Karachi
Karachi-75270
Pakistan

M. IQBAL CHOUDHARY
International Center for Chemical and
Biological Sciences
(HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry
Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular
Medicine & Drug Research)
University of Karachi
Karachi-75270
Pakistan


List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Atta-ur-Rahman
Biological Sciences
(HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular, Medicine & Drug Research)
University of Karachi
Karachi, 75270
Pakistan


Allen B. Reitz
Fox Chase Chemical Diversity Center, Inc.
Doylestown
PA, 18902
USA


M. Iqbal Choudhary
Biological Sciences
(HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular, Medicine & Drug Research)
University of Karachi
Karachi, 75270
Pakistan




Editorial Advisory Board:
P.R. Bernstein
University of Delaware
Newark
DE
USA


C. Bor-Luen
National Taiwan University, Taipei
Taiwan
R.O.C.


R. Efremov
M.M. Shemyakin & Yu.A. Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry
Moscow
Russia


C. Garcia-Echeverria
Sanofi-Aventis
Paris
France


D. Hadjipavlou-Litina
Arristotle Universith of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
Greece


D. Heymann
University of Nantes
Nantes
France


D.A. Jans
Nuclear Signaling Laboratory, Monash University
Australia


G.B. Mahady
University of Illinois at Chicago
Chicago
IL
USA


B. Malawska
Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum
Kraków
Poland


C. Philippe
Sciences and Technologies University of Lille
Lille
France




Contributor(s):
Jürgen Bajorath
Department of Life Science Informatics, B-IT, LIMES Program Unit Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry
Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
Dahlmannstr. 2
Bonn, D-53113
Germany


Maria Fernanda Martins Borges
Laboratório de Química Orgânica
Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto
Porto, 4050-047
Portugal


Fernanda Maria Fernandes Roleira
CEF/Laboratório de Química Farmacêutica, Faculdade de Farmácia
Universidade de Coimbra
Coimbra, 3000-295
Portugal


Nuno Jorge da Silva Pereira Milhazes
Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde-Norte
Rua Central de Gandra 1317
Paredes, 4580
Portugal


Eugenio Uriarte Villares
Departamento de Química Orgánica
Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago
Santiago de Compostela, 15782
Spain


Lourdes Santana Penin
Departamento de Química Orgánica
Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago
Santiago de Compostela, 15782
Spain


Toshihiko Hanai
Health Research Foundation
Institut Pasteur 5F, Sakyo-ku
Kyoto , 606-8225
Japan


Veda M. Varnai

Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health
Ksaverska cesta 2, P.O. Box 291
Zagreb
HR, 10001
Croatia


Maja Blanuša

Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health
Ksaverska cesta 2, P.O. Box 291
Zagreb
HR, 10001
Croatia


Martina Piasek

Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health
Ksaverska cesta 2, P.O. Box 291
Zagreb
HR, 10001
Croatia


Krista Kostial

Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health
Ksaverska cesta 2, P.O. Box 291
Zagreb
HR, 10001
Croatia


Ramesh Chandra Gupta
SASRD
Nagaland University
Medziphema, 797106
India


Thida Win
Department of Chemistry
University of Mandalay
Mandalay
Myanmar


Shmuel Bittner
Department of Chemistry
Ben Gurion University of the Negev
Beer Sheva
Israel


Mauro Gobbini
Department of Medicinal Chemistry
Prassis Istituto di Ricerche Sigma-Tau
Via Forlanini 3, Settimo Milanese
Budapest
MI, 20019
Italy


Alberto Cerri
Department of Medicinal Chemistry
Prassis Istituto di Ricerche Sigma-Tau
Via Forlanini 3, Settimo Milanese
Budapest
MI, 20019
Italy


Paul Budworth
Horváth Laboratory of Bioseparation Science
University of Innsbruck
Innsbruck
Austria


Julia Khandurina
Horváth Laboratory of Bioseparation Science
University of Innsbruck
Innsbruck
Austria


Andras Guttman
Horváth Laboratory of Bioseparation Science
University of Innsbruck
Innsbruck
Austria


Gail B. Mahady
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy
College of Pharmacy, WHO Collaborating Centre for Traditional Medicine
University of Illinois at Chicago
Chicago
IL , 60612
USA


Zhengming Guo
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy
College of Pharmacy, WHO Collaborating Centre for Traditional Medicine
University of Illinois at Chicago
Chicago
IL , 60612
USA


Suryanarayana Vangapandu
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy
College of Pharmacy, WHO Collaborating Centre for Traditional Medicine
University of Illinois at Chicago
Chicago
IL , 60612
USA


Robert William Sindelar
Department of Chemistry, 3National Center for the Development of Natural Products
School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi
Mississippi , 38677
USA


Larry Anthony Walker
National Center for the Development of Natural Products
School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi
Mississippi , 38677
USA


Robert David Sindelar
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B. C.
Szeged, V6T1Z3
Canada


Andreimar M. Soares
Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas
Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, FCFRP
Universidade de São
Paulo, USP
Ribeirão Preto
SP
Brazil


Silvana Marcussi
Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas
Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, FCFRP
Universidade de São
Paulo, USP
Ribeirão Preto
SP
Brazil


Renata S. Fernandes
Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas
Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, FCFRP
Universidade de São, Paulo, USP
Ribeirão Preto
SP
Brazil


Danilo L. Menaldo
Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas
Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, FCFRP
Universidade de São, Paulo, USP
Ribeirão Preto
SP
Brazil


Tássia R. Costa
Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas
Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, FCFRP
Universidade de São, Paulo, USP
Ribeirão Preto
SP
Brazil


Miriam V. Lourenço
Unidade de Biotecnologia, Universidade de Ribeirão Preto
UNAERP, Ribeirão Preto
SP, 60064
Brazil


Ana Helena Januário
Universidade de Franca, UNIFRAN
Franca
SP, 60064
Brazil


Paulo S. Pereira
Unidade de Biotecnologia, Universidade de Ribeirão Preto
UNAERP, Ribeirão Preto
SP, 60064
Brazil


Hiroshi Hirai
Department of Cancer Research
Tsukuba Research Institute, Banyu Pharmaceutical Co., LTD., in collaboration with Merck Research Institute



Nobuhiko Kawanishi
Department of Cancer Research
Tsukuba Research Institute, Banyu Pharmaceutical Co., LTD., in collaboration with Merck Research Institute



Yoshikazu Iwasawa
Department of Cancer Research
Tsukuba Research Institute, Banyu Pharmaceutical Co., LTD., in collaboration with Merck Research Institute



Yogesh S. Tingare
Department of Chemistry
National Central University, Chung Li
Taiwan , 32054
ROC


Purushottam M. Dewang
Department of Chemistry
National Central University, Chung Li
Taiwan , 32054
ROC


Nai-Mu Hsu
Department of Chemistry
National Central University, Chung Li
Taiwan , 32054
ROC


Shao-Zheng Peng
Department of Chemistry
National Central University, Chung Li
Taiwan , 32054
ROC


Wen-Ren Li
Department of Chemistry
National Central University, Chung Li
Taiwan , 32054
ROC


Christos A. Kontogiorgis
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
School of Pharmacy, Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki , 54124
Greece


Paraskevi Papaioannou
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
School of Pharmacy, Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki , 54124
Greece


Dimitra J. Hadjipavlou-Litina
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
School of Pharmacy, Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki , 54124
Greece


Barbara R. Conway
Aston University, School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston Triangle
Birmingham B4 7ET
UK


Fabrice Bailly
Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Macromoléculaire
UMR CNRS 8009, Université de Lille 1
Villeneuve d'Ascq, 59655
France


Philippe Cotelle
Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Macromoléculaire
UMR CNRS 8009, Université de Lille 1
Villeneuve d'Ascq, 59655
France


Amit Nayyar
Department of Medicinal Chemistry
National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Sector 67, S.A.S. Nagar
Punjab , 160 062
India


Sanjay R. Patel
Department of Medicinal Chemistry
National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Sector 67, S.A.S. Nagar
Punjab , 160 062
India


Rahul Jain
Department of Medicinal Chemistry
National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Sector 67, S.A.S. Nagar
Punjab , 160 062
India


Eliada Lazoura
Burnet Institute, Austin campus, Centre for Immunology
Immunology and Vaccine Laboratory
Heidelberg
VIC, 3084
Australia


Stephanie L. Day
Burnet Institute, Austin campus, Centre for Immunology
Immunology and Vaccine Laboratory
Heidelberg
VIC, 3084
Australia


Vasso Apostolopoulos
Burnet Institute, Austin campus, Centre for Immunology
Immunology and Vaccine Laboratory
Heidelberg
VIC, 3084
Australia


Donato Colangelo
Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale "A. Avogadro"
Via Solaroli, 17
Novara, I-28100
Italy


Domenico Osella
Dipartimento di Scienze dell'Ambiente e della Vita
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale "A. Avogadro"
Via Solaroli, 17
Alessandria, I-15100
Italy


Barbara Cacciari
Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche
Università degli Studi di Ferrara
Via Fossato di Mortara 17-19
Ferrara, I-44100
Italy


Pamela Crepaldi
Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche
Università degli Studi di Ferrara
Via Fossato di Mortara 17-19
Ferrara, I-44100
Italy


Stephanie Federico
Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche
Università degli Studi di Trieste, Piazzale Europa 1
Trieste, I-34127
Italy


Giampiero Spalluto
Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche
Università degli Studi di Trieste, Piazzale Europa 1
Trieste, I-34127
Italy


Takayoshi Suzuki
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University
3-1 Tanabe-dori, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya
Aichi , 467-8603
Japan


Naoki Miyata
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University
3-1 Tanabe-dori, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya
Aichi , 467-8603
Japan


Hubert Scharnagl
Clinical Institute of Medical and Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics
Medical University of Graz
Austria


Tatjana Stojakovic
Clinical Institute of Medical and Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics
Medical University of Graz
Austria


Winfried März
Synlab Center of Laboratory Diagnostics
Heidelberg
Germany


John W. Huffman
H. L. Hunter Chemistry Laboratory
Clemson University, Clemson
South Carolina, 29634-0973
USA


Lea W. Padgett
H. L. Hunter Chemistry Laboratory
Clemson University, Clemson
South Carolina, 29634-0973
USA


Garry M. Walsh
Division of Applied Medicine
Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen
Foresterhill, P.O. Box 27
Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD
UK


Michael Whitehouse
School of Medicine (Gold Coast Campus) and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences (Nathan Campus)
Griffith University, Záhony u 7
Queensland
Australia


Nicole Höttecke
Clemens Schöpf-Institute for Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry
TU Darmstadt, Petersenstr. 22
Darmstadt, D-64287
Germany


Stefanie Baumann
Clemens Schöpf-Institute for Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry
TU Darmstadt, Petersenstr. 22
Darmstadt, D-64287
Germany


Ali Taghavi
Clemens Schöpf-Institute for Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry
TU Darmstadt, Petersenstr. 22
Darmstadt, D-64287
Germany


Hannes A. Braun
Clemens Schöpf-Institute for Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry
TU Darmstadt, Petersenstr. 22
Darmstadt, D-64287
Germany


Boris Schmidt
Clemens Schöpf-Institute for Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry
TU Darmstadt, Petersenstr. 22
Darmstadt, D-64287
Germany


Michael W. Marlatt
Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences-Center for Neuroscience
University of Amsterdam
Amsterdam
The Netherlands


Paula I. Moreira
Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology
University of Coimbra,
Coimbra
Portugal


Hyoung-gon Lee
Departments of Pathology and Neurosciences
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland
Ohio
USA


Gemma Casadesus
Departments of Pathology and Neurosciences
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland
Ohio
USA


Rudy J. Castellani
Department of Pathology
University of Maryland, Baltimore
Maryland
USA


Atsushi Takeda
Division of Neurology, Department of Neuroscience
Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine
Sendai
Japan


Akihiko Nunomura
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering
University of Yamanashi
Yamanashi
Japan


Xiongwei Zhu
Departments of Pathology and Neurosciences
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland
Ohio
USA


George Perry
College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio
San Antonio
USA


Mark A. Smith
Departments of Pathology and Neurosciences
, Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland
Ohio
USA


S. Bruce King
Department of Chemistry
Wake Forest University
Winston-Salem
NC , 27109
USA


Barbara Malawska
Department of Physicochemical Drug Analysis
Jagiellonian University, Medical College, Chair of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
30-688 Kraków, ul
Medyczna 9
Poland


Haitao Ji
Department of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Cell Biology
Center for Drug Discovery and Chemical Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston
Illinois , 60208-3113
USA


Erik P. Erdal
Department of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Cell Biology
Center for Drug Discovery and Chemical Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston
Illinois , 60208-3113
USA


Elizabeth A. Litzinger
Department of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Cell Biology
Center for Drug Discovery and Chemical Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston
Illinois , 60208-3113
USA


Jiwon Seo
Department of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Cell Biology
Center for Drug Discovery and Chemical Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston
Illinois , 60208-3113
USA


Yaoqiu Zhu
Department of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Cell Biology
Center for Drug Discovery and Chemical Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston
Illinois , 60208-3113
USA


Fengtian Xue
Department of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Cell Biology
Center for Drug Discovery and Chemical Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston
Illinois , 60208-3113
USA


Jianguo Fang
Department of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Cell Biology
Center for Drug Discovery and Chemical Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston
Illinois , 60208-3113
USA


Jinwen Huang
Department of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Cell Biology
Center for Drug Discovery and Chemical Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston
Illinois , 60208-3113
USA


Richard B. Silverman
Department of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Cell Biology
Center for Drug Discovery and Chemical Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston
Illinois , 60208-3113
USA




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