Application of Adsorbents for Water Pollution Control


by

Amit Bhatnagar

DOI: 10.2174/97816080526911120101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-269-1, 2012
ISBN: 978-1-60805-538-8



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Among various water and wastewater treatment technologies, the adsorption process is considered better because of lower cost, simple d...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i-ii (2)

Stephen J. Allen

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Preface

- Pp. iii-v (3)

Amit Bhatnagar

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List of Contributors

- Pp. vi-x (5)

Amit Bhatnagar

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Activated Carbon Adsorption for Waste Water Treatment

- Pp. 3-31 (29)

Meenakshi Goyal and Mamta Bhagat

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Equilibrium and Kinetic Modeling of Adsorption at Solid/Solution Interfaces

- Pp. 32-80 (49)

Wojciech Plazinski and Anita Plazinska

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Iron Oxide Nanoadsorbents for Removal of Various Pollutants from Wastewater: An Overview

- Pp. 81-118 (38)

Nashaat N. Nassar

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Surface Engineered Inorganic Nanomaterials for Water Remediation

- Pp. 119-152 (34)

Bedabrata Saha and Gopal Das

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Layered Double Hydroxides as Potential Sorbents for Water Remediation

- Pp. 153-237 (85)

P. Koilraj, C. M. Jinesh and S. Kannan

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Mesoporous Silicates for Mitigation of Metal-Ion and Phosphate Pollution in Water

- Pp. 238-271 (34)

Aoife M. Burke, Colm McManamon, Paul Delaney, John P. Hanrahan, Justin D. Holmes and Michael A. Morris

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Kaolinite: A Cheap Alternative for Industrial and Mining Wastewater Treatment

- Pp. 272-290 (19)

Zuy Maria Magriotis, Rísia Magriotis Papini, Paulo Roberto de Magalhães Viana, Priscila Ferreira de Sales and Otávia Martins Silva Rodrigues

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Natural and Treated Montmorillonites as Scavengers of Toxic Metals from Water

- Pp. 291-346 (56)

Susmita Sen Gupta and K.G. Bhattacharyya

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Natural Materials as Low Cost Adsorbents for Water Treatment

- Pp. 347-362 (16)

Emine Malkoc

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Use of Natural Zeolites for Organic Compounds Removal from Water

- Pp. 363-381 (19)

Stefano Salvestrini, Pasquale Iovino, Silvana Canzano and Sante Capasso

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Agricultural Wastes as Low Cost Adsorbents for Water Treatment

- Pp. 382-412 (31)

Ali Ahmadpour, Tahereh Rohani Bastami and Samira Hozhabr Araghi

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A Review: Utilization of Biochar for Wastewater Treatment

- Pp. 413-431 (19)

Hong Zhang, Zengliang Yu and Qing Huang

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Application of Rice Husk and Bagasse Ash as Adsorbents in Water Treatment

- Pp. 432-454 (23)

Paitip Thiravetyan

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Electric ARC Furnace Steel Slag: A Low Cost Industrial Adsorbent for Stormwater Treatment

- Pp. 455-484 (30)

Nnaemeka C. Okochi and Dena W. McMartin

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Victorian Lignite as an Alternative Industrial Adsorbent - Kinetic Studies

- Pp. 485-501 (17)

Ying Qi, Gil Garnier and Andrew F.A. Hoadley

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Bone Char: An Alternative for the Removal of Diverse Organic and Inorganic Compounds from Industrial Wastewaters

- Pp. 502-522 (21)

Sônia Denise Ferreira Rocha, Marcos Vinícius Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto de Magalhães Viana and Marcelo Borges Mansur

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A Note on the Advances in Adsorption Technology for Water Treatment: Progress and Challenges

- Pp. 523-528 (6)

Amit Bhatnagar

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Foreword

Adsorption processes have played and are continuing to play an important role in much environmental application particularly in those dealing with wastewater and drinking water treatment.

One of the purposes of this e-book, “Application of adsorbents for water pollution control” edited by Dr. Amit Bhatnagar is to provide readers with a practical review of some of the many novel applications of conventional and novel alternative adsorbents in such important water treatment operations. In addition to reminding us about the ongoing use of the well established adsorbent activated carbon, chapters in the book provide us with clear descriptions and evidence of the importance and relevance of the use of natural adsorbents and modified natural adsorbents. The use of these alternative adsorbents in the removal of a wide range of contaminants and pollutants from water is well presented and discussed.

The type of materials which are illustrated include various nanomaterials, layered double hydroxides mesoporous silicates, kaolinite. montmorillonites and modified montmorillonites, zeolites agricultural materials including rice husk, biochars, bagasse ash waste slag, lignite and bone chars. Nanomaterials development is at the forefront of new adsorbent development and design with emphasis on surface modification to provide adsorbents with particular activity. The applications of these materials include metal ion uptake, organics removal, nutrient removal to name but a few.

The editor, Dr. Amit Bhatnagar is a recognized researcher in the field, and he describes for us some of the recent advances in adsorption technology for water treatment. He concludes that adsorption is a process which is widely used for water remediation around the world. He identifies that scale up from fundamental research to applied activity is a major challenge.

The book is full of references, and the chapter authors offer excellent analyses of the research dealing with the characterization and application of the different adsorbents. The chapters bring together descriptions of the research activity on surface structure and processes, adsorption isotherm and kinetic theories.

The intrinsic properties of the natural adsorbents have helped in their applications in this fast growing field. Activated carbon is described in terms of the high surface area, presence of reactive surface groups and how these hydrophilic and polar carbon surfaces are obtained through chemical activation.

Many of the theoretical models used in batch kinetic and equilibrium processes are described and presented as a descriptive compilation of the most widely used and representative models.

The increasing awareness of the use of iron oxide and iron oxide modified adsorbents is recognised. The properties and activity of Iron oxide nano adsorbents are described and the nanoparticles are shown to have suitable applications in the removal of various pollutants from wastewater.

The main aspects and challenges relating to advancing applications of adsorption processes for the treatment of wastewater are taken by the authors from fundamental adsorption mechanisms and principles through to the many industrial and municipal applications described in the text.

To sum up, this e-book provides us with a profile of some of the recent research activity in relation to the application of low cost adsorbents in wastewater treatment.

Professor Stephen J. Allen, Ph.D.
School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering
Queen’s University Belfast
Northern Ireland

United Kingdom



Preface

Water pollution has emerged as one of the severe environmental threats globally. In recent years, the problem has become critical due to the mismanagement of natural water resources, population growth and rapid pace of industrialization. Among various water treatment technologies, ‘adsorption’ process is still one of the best methods available for the removal of diverse types of pollutants from water and wastewater. Several wastewater treatment plants all over the world are operating on the principle of adsorption. The technological and environmental importance of adsorption can never be in doubt.

Activated carbon, a universal adsorbent, has undoubtedly been the most popular and widely used adsorbent in water and wastewater treatment. Charcoal, the forerunner of modern activated carbon has been recognized as the oldest adsorbent known in wastewater treatment in removing diverse contaminants/pollutants such as metals, dyes, phenolic derivatives. However, in spite of abundant uses of activated carbon, its applications are sometime restricted due to its higher cost. Attention has therefore, shifted towards the use of non-conventional naturally occurring materials, agricultural and industrial waste products as low-cost adsorbents for water remediation. Recently, sorption onto low-cost materials such as carbons produced from wastes or natural by-products, natural sorbents, and biosorbents has been the focus of much attention. The purpose of this book is to present detailed reviews on the application of variety of adsorbents in water pollution control.

Chapter 1 presents a comprehensive review on the preparation, properties and use of activated carbon for wastewater treatment. The sorption mechanism of different pollutants by activated carbon has also been discussed. In Chapter 2, the most common equilibrium and kinetic models describing the adsorption at solid/solution interfaces have been discussed. Chapter 3 focuses on the removal of various pollutants from wastewater using different phases of iron oxide nanoadsorbents. The chapter highlights the main synthesis techniques of iron oxide nanoadsorbents, their types, advantages, and adsorption mechanisms

Chapter 4 highlights the different surface engineering strategies for enhanced and/or selective removal of different inorganic/organic pollutants from water iv bodies. Chapter 5 reviews the application of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) or hydrotalcite-like (HT-like) materials in water remediation. A brief introduction on LDHs, their synthesis methodologies, physicochemical characterization and their application potential in the removal of environmentally undesired oxoanions like phosphate, borate and chromate from aqueous solutions. A comparison on the anion-exchange removal capacity of LDHs with commercial anion exchangers is also discussed. Different mechanisms involved in the removal of phosphate, borate and chromate anions by LDHs are addressed.

Chapter 6 discusses the development of novel, highly ordered, mesoporous materials as active sorbents for mitigation of environmental pollutants. Chapter 7 reports the use of kaolinite as inexpensive adsorbent for industrial and mining wastewater treatment. In Chapter 8, the use of a common clay mineral, montmorillonite and its modified derivatives for adsorptive removal of toxic heavy metals from aqueous system has been reviewed. The review aims to give a comprehensive picture on the studies of isotherm of adsorption for metal removal on montmorillonites during the recent years.

Chapter 9 focuses on application of some natural materials (zeolites, siliceous materials, clays) as low cost adsorbents for water treatment. Chapter 10 reports the sorptive removal studies of humic acids, phenylureas and triazines herbicides by using zeolites such as phillipsite and chabazite. In Chapter 11, the application of agricultural solid wastes without any chemical treatments, i.e. identified as “low cost adsorbents”, has been reviewed for the removal of different pollutants especially heavy metals and organics. Chapter 12 presents a review on the use of biochars as low-cost adsorbent for wastewater treatment summarizing the concept, methods of production, property of structure, capacity and mechanism of adsorption for hazardous materials and some recommendations for future work.

Chapter 13 addresses the application of rice husk and bagasse ash as adsorbents to remove dyes from textile and printing wastewater and heavy metals, such as nickel, from electroplating wastewater. Chapter 14 discusses the use of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) slag as a safe, effective and inexpensive end-of-pipe add-on solution for improving the treatment of urban stormwater runoff. Chapter 15 describes the use of Victorian lignite, a cheap natural energy resource from v southeast Australia, for methylene blue dye removal from aqueous solutions without the need of pretreatment. The kinetics of the adsorption process was examined using different kinetic models.

In Chapter 16, a detailed characterization of bone char is presented. Thermodynamic and kinetics aspects of adsorption using bone char in these systems are presented. The results depict a high affinity of bone char for both organic and inorganic compounds which makes it a potential adsorbent for chemically complex solutions. The adsorption mechanisms are also discussed. Chapter 17 briefly summarizes the progress and advances in adsorption technology for water remediation.

The intended audience for this e-book includes students, environmentalists, engineers, water scientists, civil and industrial personnel who wish to specialize in adsorption technology for water treatment. This e-book will be very helpful for the researchers who aspire to learn about recent developments on sorbent materials in order to promote further research toward improving and developing novel sorbents and processes for the efficient removal of pollutants from industrial effluents.

Finally, the editor would like to thank all the contributing authors of this e-book. I would like to thank Prof. S.J. Allen, for writing the foreword and Bentham Science Publishers, particularly Manager, Bushra Siddiqui, and Assistant Manager, Maria Baig, for their continuous support and efforts throughout this project.

Last but not the least, I would like to sincerely extend my heartfelt thanks to my parents and my lovely wife, Eva, who has put all her efforts to complete this project.

Amit Bhatnagar
The School of Natural Sciences
Linnaeus University
Sweden

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Amit Bhatnagar
The School of Natural Sciences
Linnaeus University
Sweden




Contributor(s):
Meenakshi Goyal
University Institute of Chemical Engineering ' Technology Punjab University
Chandigarh
India


Mamta Bhagat
Department of Chemical Engineering
D C R University of Science & Technology
Murthal
Haryana
India


Wojciech Plazinski
Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry
Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Niezapominajek 8
Cracow, 30-239
Poland


Anita Plazinska
Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Neuroengineering
Medical University of Lublin ul.
W. Chodzki 4a
Lublin, 20-093
Poland


Nashaat N. Nassar
Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering
University of Calgary
Calgary
Alberta , T2N 1N4
Canada


Bedabrata Saha
Centre for the Environment and Department of Chemistry
Indian Institute of Technology
Guwahati
Assam
India


Gopal Das
Centre for the Environment and Department of Chemistry
Indian Institute of Technology
Guwahati
Assam
India


P. Koilraj
Discipline of Inorganic Materials & Catalysis
Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research)
GB Marg
Bhavnagar , 364021
India


C. M. Jinesh
Discipline of Inorganic Materials & Catalysis
Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research)
GB Marg
Bhavnagar , 364021
India


S. Kannan
Discipline of Inorganic Materials & Catalysis
Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research)
GB Marg
Bhavnagar , 364021
India


Aoife M. Burke
Department of Chemistry
University College Cork
Cork
Ireland
/
Environmental Research Institute
Lee Road
Cork
Ireland


Colm McManamon
Department of Chemistry
University College Cork
Cork
Ireland
/
Environmental Research Institute
Lee Road
Cork
Ireland


Paul Delaney
Department of Chemistry
University College Cork
Cork
Ireland
/
Environmental Research Institute
Lee Road
Cork
Ireland


John P. Hanrahan
Department of Chemistry
University College Cork
Cork
Ireland
/
Environmental Research Institute
Lee Road
Cork
Ireland


Justin D. Holmes
Department of Chemistry
University College Cork
Cork
Ireland
/
Environmental Research Institute
Lee Road
Cork
Ireland


Michael A. Morris
Department of Chemistry
University College Cork
Cork
Ireland
/
Environmental Research Institute
Lee Road
Cork
Ireland


Zuy Maria Magriotis
Departamento de Química
Universidade Federal de Lavras
Lavras
Minas Gerais
Brazil


Priscila Ferreira de Sales
Departamento de Química
Universidade Federal de Lavras
Lavras
Minas Gerais
Brazil


Rísia Magriotis Papini
Departamento de Engenharia de Minas
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Belo Horizonte
Minas Gerais
Brazil


P.R. de M. Viana
Departamento de Engenharia de Minas
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Belo Horizonte
Minas Gerais
Brazil


O. M.S. Rodrigues
Departamento de Engenharia de Minas
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Belo Horizonte
Minas Gerais
Brazil


Susmita Sen Gupta
Department of Chemistry
B N College
Dhubri
Assam
India


K.G. Bhattacharyya
Department of Chemistry
Gauhati University
Guwahati
Assam
India


Emine Malkoc
Ataturk University
Engineering Faculty, Department of Environmental Engineering
Erzurum
Turkey


Stefano Salvestrini
Department of Environmental Sciences
Second University of Naples
Caserta
Italy


Pasquale Iovino
Department of Environmental Sciences
Second University of Naples
Caserta
Italy


Silvana Canzano
Department of Environmental Sciences
Second University of Naples
Caserta
Italy


Sante Capasso
Department of Environmental Sciences
Second University of Naples
Caserta
Italy


Ali Ahmadpour
Department of Chemical Engineering
Faculty of Engineering
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box 1111
Mashhad
Iran


Tahereh Rohani Bastami
Department of Chemistry
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
P.O. Box 91775
Mashhad
Iran


Samira Hozhabr Araghi
Department of Chemistry
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
P.O. Box 91775
Mashhad
Iran


Hong Zhang
Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering
Institute of Biotechnology and Agriculture Engineering
Hefei Institutes of Physical Science
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Hefei
Anhui , 230031
PR China


Qing Huang
Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering
Institute of Biotechnology and Agriculture Engineering
Hefei Institutes of Physical Science
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Hefei
Anhui , 230031
PR China


Zengliang Yu
Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering
Institute of Biotechnology and Agriculture Engineering
Hefei Institutes of Physical Science
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Hefei
Anhui , 230031
PR China


Paitip Thiravetyan
Division of Biotechnology
School of Bioresources and Technology
King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi
Bangkok
Thailand


Nnaemeka C. Okochi
Environmental Systems Engineering
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science
University of Regina
Regina
Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2
Canada


Dena W. McMartin
Environmental Systems Engineering
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science
University of Regina
Regina
Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2
Canada


Ying Qi
Department of Chemical Engineering
Monash University, Australia
P. O. Box 36, Monash University
Clayton 3800
Victoria
Australia


Gil Garnier
Department of Chemical Engineering
Monash University, Australia
P. O. Box 36, Monash University
Clayton
Victoria, 3800
Australia
/
Australian Pulp and Paper Institute
Monash University, Australia
P. O. Box 59, Monash University
Clayton
Victoria, 3800
Australia


Andrew F.A. Hoadley
Department of Chemical Engineering
Monash University, Australia
P. O. Box 36, Monash University
Clayton
Victoria, 3800
Australia


S.D.F. Rocha
Department of Mining Engineering and Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Belo Horizonte
Minas Gerais
Brazil


M.V. Ribeiro
Department of Mining Engineering and Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Belo Horizonte
Minas Gerais
Brazil


P.R. de M. Viana
Department of Mining Engineering and Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Belo Horizonte
Minas Gerais
Brazil


M.B. Mansur
Department of Mining Engineering and Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Belo Horizonte
Minas Gerais
Brazil


Amit Bhatnagar
The School of Natural Sciences
Linnaeus University Landgången 3
SE-391 82 Kalmar
Sweden




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