Frontiers in Pluripotent Stem Cells Research and Therapeutic Potentials Bench-to-Bedside


by

Kuldip S. Sidhu

DOI: 10.2174/97816080528991120101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-289-9, 2012
ISBN: 978-1-60805-533-3

  
  


Indexed in: Scopus

Pluripotent stem cells have garnered tremendous interest in recent years, which is primarily driven by the hope of finding a cure for ...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

Foreword , Pp. i

Glyn Stacey

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Preface , Pp. ii-iii (2)

Kuldip S. Sidhu

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List of Contributors , Pp. iv-ix (6)

Kuldip S. Sidhu

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Stem Cells, Definition, Classification and Sources , Pp. 3-15 (13)

Kuldip S. Sidhu, Methichit Chayosumrit and Khun H. Lie

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Therapeutic Cloning: Derivation and Propagation of Embryonic Stem Cells by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer , Pp. 16-29 (14)

Zichuan Liu, Shuya Zhou, Shun Zhang, Baolong Xia and Qi Zhou

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Characterization of Human Embryonic Stem Cells , Pp. 30-40 (11)

Romulo M. Brena

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Generation of Pluripotent Stem Cells and their Developmental Potential , Pp. 41-55 (15)

Brock J. Conley, Mark Denham, Martin F. Pera and Mirella Dottori

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Genome, Epigenome and Transcriptome Profiling of Pluripotent Stem Cells , Pp. 56-67 (12)

Henry Chung and Kuldip S. Sidhu

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Modelling Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells to the Three Germ Layers , Pp. 68-82 (15)

Michael B. Morris

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Stem Cells and Translational Medicine: Ethics, Law, and Policy , Pp. 83-94 (12)

Loane Skene

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Pluripotent Stem Cells & Neurodegenerative and Ischaemic Brain Diseases: Basic Science to Clinical Applications , Pp. 95-112 (18)

Kuldip S. Sidhu and Perminder S. Sachdev

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Pluripotent Stem Cells - A Novel Source of Haematopoietic Cells for Transplantation and Transfusion Medicine , Pp. 113-142 (30)

Catalina A. Palma, David Ma and Robert Lindeman

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Pluripotent Stem Cells and Diabetes: Basic Science to Clinical Applications , Pp. 143-167 (25)

Khun H. Lie, Methichit Chayosumrit, Anand Hardikar and Kuldip S. Sidhu

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Stem Cells and Ocular Disorders: Basic Science to Clinical Applications , Pp. 168-179 (12)

Indumathi Mariappan, Subhash Gaddipati, Taraprasad Das, Geeta K. Vemuganti and Virender S. Sangwan

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Micro-RNAs, Pluripotent Stem Cells and Germ Cells: Basic Science to Clinical Applications , Pp. 180-190 (11)

Jinlian Hua, Shun Zhang, L. Wang, H. Cao, H. Zhu, J. Sun and Kuldip S.Sidhu

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Stem Cell Technologies and their Application in Modern Toxicology- Current State of the Art , Pp. 191-204 (14)

Martina Klarić, Roberto E.-Waser, Kinga Vojnits and Susanne B.-Hoffmann

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Pluripotent Stem Cells for (Neurodegenerative) Disease Modelling , Pp. 205-219 (15)

Greg T. Sutherland and Kuldip S. Sidhu

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Stem Cell Therapy in Alzheimer’s Disease Models: Neurogenesis Versus Trophic Support , Pp. 220-226 (7)

Jürgen Götz and Sven Büttner

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The Prospects and Challenges of Cell-Based Therapies , Pp. 227-233 (7)

Kuldip S. Sidhu

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Subject Index , Pp. 234-237 (4)

Kuldip S. Sidhu

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Foreword

Scientific research continues to add new dimensions to the life of mankind. In the recent years there has been renewed interest in the field of stem cell particularly the embryonic stem cell research at the cutting edge molecular level, and this has given rise to the whole new field of stem cell biotechnology – harnessing their full potentials for alleviating the sufferings of human with diseases for which there is no cure. The rapid expanding knowledge in this area has open up new vistas and products which will affect many aspects of human health at large.

The collection of scholarly written chapters in this eBook focuses on the impact of rapid development in the field of pluripotent stem cells research on human health and many debilitating human diseases such as diabetes, Alzheimer’s, macula degeneration and many more where the traditional medical approaches are less than ideal. Because this field of stem cell is becoming so broad, other areas of stem cell biology like pluripotency and disease modelling, tissue engineering, toxicological perspectives, ethics, animal models are also discussed in length to move this field forward from laboratory to clinics.

The future impact of these advances will allow a much greater control over people’s health, and to enhance both the length and quality of their lives. Understanding of the disease process, disease modelling and tissue engineering will be enhanced considerable by using pluripitent stem cells in the future and that will pave the development of cell therapy more quickly.

However, it would be entirely misplaced optimism to believe that such advances will usher in an era of stem cell panacea for all kind of human ailments because with the increase of human life expectancy recently, unexpected diseases may also crop up in the population. At best stem cell field will provide a definitive further strong support towards human health and can offer answers more quickly.

This excellent compilation by the Professor Kuldip Sidhu is very timely when pluripotent stem cells field once again is emerging as an important area of human biotechnology and regenerative medicine with number of more clinical trials in horizon.

Professor Glyn Stacey

Director, UK Stem Cell Bank

EN6 3QG Hertfordshire

UK


Preface

Stem cells in general and pluripotent stem cells in particular have gained tremendous interest in the recent years, primarily driven by the hope of finding cures for several debilitating human diseases through cell transplantation (regenerating medicine). Pluripotent stem cells have the inherent ability to reproduce indefinitely and have the capability to produce all the 220 different types of cells constituting the human body and thus offer tremendous therapeutic potentials. The isolation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) from embryos and their successful culture in the petrii dish in 1998 has been considered the biggest breakthrough of the 21st century. This has been followed by another remarkable breakthrough in 2006 when scientists demonstrated for the first time that such pluripotent stem cells could be produced from adult somatic tissues by reprogramming without having to use human embryos. These pluripotent stem cells are called the induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Production of iPS cells has been considered as the biggest discovery of this decade. Both hESCs and iPS cells are pluripotent and are highly versatile and offer tremendous therapeutic potential for finding cures for many incurable diseases such as diabetes, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and many other diseases via stem cell therapeutic in the next decade or so.

Both ES and iPS cells are pluripotent and capable of differentiating into three primary germ layer derivatives—an important characteristic for producing healthy cells for therapeutic purposes. While there are some proofs of principle with embryonic stem cells for therapeutic approaches in animal models, two major roadblocks to their use in humans must be overcome: post-transplantation immune rejection and ethical issues. iPS cell technology addresses both concerns: it is possible to use a patient’s own somatic cells to generate therapeutic iPS cells (thus eliminating the potential for immune rejection), and they represent an acceptable alternative to the use of human embryos for stem cell production. An added benefit is that patient-specific iPS cells can be used for drug and regenerative medical research. However, there are some significant issues that need further investigations : (i) the low efficiency of cell reprogramming, (ii) the integration of viral transgenes into the somatic genome, especially oncogenes such as c-MYC and KLF4 and (iii) iPS cell can lead to tumor formation. There has been a significant progress during the last 4-5 years to address to these issues and the efficiency of reprogramming has been increasing and the non-integrating systems developed to eliminate the possibility of mutagenesis with integrating approaches.

The use of stem cells in the therapeutic field and in drug development has been of considerable interest in contemporary bioscience. In recent years our knowledge and understanding of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine has increased substantially. ESCs not only continuously divide, they are also able to differentiate into all cell types of the human body. The isolation of tissue stem cells could offer a less ethically contentious and more practical source of replacement tissue for organs that are susceptible to age-related diseases or traumatic injury. These diseases include Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, but also stroke, myocardial infarction and diabetes to mention a few. They have become a serious health problem in our societies as people now live longer. A large part of stem cell research aims to identify the ideal cell type and time point of cell transplantation. Future research will also lead to improved protocols that generate more pure populations of transplantable cells. With the continuous progress in stem cell research, modern clinical medicine is at the threshold of transformation.

Cellular therapies with products from pluripotent stem cell have the potential to treat many conditions where present conventional treatments are inadequate. As such, public expectation remains high that these novel therapies will be ‘‘panacea,’’ even though there have been few preclinical animal trials. However, recent FDA approval for two clinical trials with cells derived from hESC for spinal cord injury patients and those with macula degeneration will give a big boost once some preliminary data are made available. Therefore, there is still a significant gap between promising laboratory-based research and approved final products in this emerging field. the information generated during the last one decade on these pluripotent stem cells is compartmentalized in different journals and reports. This eBook brings together the state-of-the-art on these stem cells, compiled by reputed scientists from different part of the world who are experts in the relevant fields. The major focus of this eBook has been to bring together all aspects of pluripotent stem cells from basic biology to their use in understanding disease process, toxicology, drug discovery and towards developing therapeutics.

The major credit goes to all those who contributed scholarly written chapters on fields of their expertise to this eBook and have laid the foundation for continuous progression of innovative investigations for inquisitive minds to explore further the areas of stem cell biology that can offer respite to many debilitating human diseases for which there is no cure. Members of the stem cell lab contributed sincerely for completion of this eBook. The patience of my family, particularly my wife, Dr Kiran Sidhu greatly helped me in completing this task particularly Dr Sophia Dean who prepared the subject index and also carried out general editing. The cooperation of the Bentham Press and its staff to bring out the final form of this eBook that is more presentable and readable is appreciable.

Kuldip S. Sidhu

Director Stem Cell Lab, Faculty of Medicine

The University of New South Wales

Australia

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Kuldip S. Sidhu
The University of New South Wales
Australia




Contributor(s):
Susanne B.-Hoffman
In Vitro Methods Unit (ECVAM)
Institute for Health & Consumer
Protection Joint Research Centre
European Commission via E. Fermi
Ispra (VA)
Italy


Romulo M. Brena
Epigenome Center
Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center
University of Southern California
1450 Biggy Street, NRT G511
Los Angeles
CA 90033-9601
USA


Sven Büttner
Alzheimer’s &; Parkinson’s Disease Lab
Brain & Mind Research Institute
University of Sydney
Sydney

Australia


H. Cao
College of Veterinary Medicine
Shaanxi Center of Stem Cell Engineering & Technology
Northwest A&F University
Yangling
Shaanxi
China


Methichit Chayosumrit
Siriraj Center of Excellence for Stem Cell Research
Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital
Mahidol University
Thailand


Henry Chung
Stem Cell Lab
Faculty of Medicine
The University of New South Wales
Sydney
Australia


Taraprasad Das
L V Prasad Eye Institute
Bhubaneswar Campus
Orissa
India


Mark Denham
Centre for Neuroscience
Department of Pharmacology
The University of Melbourne
Australia


Mirella Dottori
Centre for Neuroscience
Department of Pharmacology
The University of Melbourne
Melbourne
Australia


Roberto E.-Waser
In Vitro Methods Unit (ECVAM)
Institute for Health & Consumer
Protection Joint Research Centre
European Commission via E. Fermi
Ispra
(VA)
Italy


Subhash Gaddipati
L.V.Prasad Eye Institute
Kallam Anji Reddy Campus
L.V.Prasad Marg, Banjara Hills
Hyderabad
India


Jürgen Götz
Alzheimer’s & Parkinson’s Disease Lab
Brain & Mind Research Institute
University of Sydney
Sydney
Australia


Anand Hardikar
Diabetes and Pancreas Biology Section
The O'Brien Institute, Department of Surgery
St Vincent's Hospital
The University of Melbourne
Australia


Y. Hu
College of Veterinary Medicine
Shaanxi Center of Stem Cell Engineering & Technology
Northwest A&F University
Yangling
Shaanxi
China


Jinlian Hua
College of Veterinary Medicine
Shaanxi Center of Stem Cell Engineering & Technology
Northwest A&F University
Yangling
Shaanxi
China


Brock James
Centre for Neuroscience
Department of Pharmacology
The University of Melbourne
Australia


Martina Klaric
In Vitro Methods Unit (ECVAM)
European Commission via E. Fermi
Protection Joint Research Centre
Institute for Health & Consumer
Ispra
(VA)
Italy


Khun H. Lie
Stem Cell Lab
Faculty of Medicine
University of New South Wales
Australia


Robert Lindeman
Department of Haematology
Prince of Wales Hospital
Barker Street
Randwick
NSW 2031
Australia


Zichuan Liu
State Key Lab of Reproductive Biology
Institute of Zoology
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Beijing
P R
China


David Ma
Blood Stem Cells and Cancer Research
St Vincent's Centre for Applied Medical Research
St Vincent's Hospital
Darlinghurst
NSW 2010
Australia


Indumathi Mariappan
L.V.Prasad Eye Institute
Kallam Anji Reddy Campus
L.V.Prasad Marg, Banjara Hills
Hyderabad
India


Michael Morris
School of Medical Sciences
Bosch Institute
Royal North Shore Hospital
The University of Sydney
Sydney
Australia


Catalina A. Palmer
Blood Stem Cells and Cancer Research
St Vincent's Centre for Applied Medical Research
St Vincent's Hospital
Darlinghurst
NSW 2010
Australia


Martin Pera
The Eli and Edythe Broad Center
Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research
USC
USA


Perminder Sachdev
Neuropsychiatry Institute
The University of New South Wales
Sydney
Australia


Virender Sangwan
L.V.Prasad Eye Institute
Kallam Anji Reddy Campus
L.V.Prasad Marg, Banjara Hills
Hyderabad
India


Kuldip S. Sidhu
Faculty of Medicine
The University of New South Wales
Sydney
Australia


Loane Skene
Melbourne Law School
University of Melbourne
Parkville
Melbourne
Australia 3010


J. Sun
College of Veterinary Medicine
Shaanxi Center of Stem Cell Engineering & Technology Northwest
A &F University Yangling
Shaanxi
China


Greg Sutherland
Discipline of Pathology
Sydney Medical School
University of Sydney
Sydney
Australia


Geeta Vemuganti
L.V.Prasad Eye Institute
Kallam Anji Reddy Campus
L.V.Prasad Marg, Banjara Hills
Hyderabad
India


Kinga Vojnits
In Vitro Methods Unit (ECVAM)
Institute for Health & Consumer
Protection Joint Research Centre
European Commission via E. Fermi
Ispra
(VA)
Italy


L. Wang
College of Veterinary Medicine
Shaanxi Center of Stem Cell Engineering& Technology
Northwest A&F University
Yangling
Shaanxi
China


Baolong Xia
State Key Lab of Reproductive Biology
Institute of Zoology
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Beijing
P R. China


Shun Zhang
State Key Lab of Reproductive Biology
Institute of Zoology
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Beijing
P R
China


S. Zhang
College of Veterinary Medicine
Shaanxi Center of Stem Cell Engineering & Technology
Northwest A&F University
Yangling
Shaanxi
China


Qi Zhou
State Key Lab of Reproductive Biology
Institute of Zoology
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Beijing
P R
China


Shuya Zhou
State Key Lab of Reproductive Biology
Institute of Zoology
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Beijing
P R
China


H. Zhu
College of Veterinary Medicine
Shaanxi Center of Stem Cell Engineering & Technology
Northwest A&F University
Yangling
Shaanxi
China




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