Fault Tolerant Drive By Wire Systems: Impact on Vehicle Safety and Reliability


by

Sohel Anwar

DOI: 10.2174/97816080530701120101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-307-0, 2012
ISBN: 978-1-60805-667-5



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Indexed in: Scopus

This e-book details state-of-the-art drive by wire technology. Readers are made aware about the challenges ahead that need be addresse...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i

Rolf Isermann

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Preface

- Pp. ii

Sohel Anwar

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iii

Sohel Anwar

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Introduction and Overview of Fault Tolerant Drive by Wire Systems

- Pp. 3-28 (26)

Sohel Anwar

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System Level Reliability Issues and Their Enhancement in Drive-by-Wire (DBW) Systems

- Pp. 29-39 (11)

M. Abul Masrur

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Dependability and Functional Safety

- Pp. 40-51 (12)

Giuseppe Buja and Roberto Menis

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Steer-by-wire Control System Using GPS for Articulated Vehicles

- Pp. 52-69 (18)

Rami Nasrallah and Sabri Cetinkunt

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Virtual Operator Model for Construction Equipment Design

- Pp. 70-87 (18)

Ahmed Adel Elezaby and Sabri Cetinkunt

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Index

- Pp. 88

Sohel Anwar

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Foreword

High-integrity systems require a comprehensive fault tolerance for the components and the corresponding control system. This includes the design of fault-tolerant sensors, actuators, process parts, computers, communication (bus) systems and control-algorithms. The fault tolerance is frequently based on redundancy in hardware and also software, either as static redundancy with several modules or dynamic redundancy with cold or hot standby modules. Examples of such redundant systems are known for train and nuclear power systems, and for space vehicles and aircraft. Especially the fly-by-wire systems for aircraft demonstrate a very high state-of the art of hardware and software redundancy and fault tolerance.

Drive-by-wire systems for automobiles at the actuator level are since more than 15 years in series production for e.g. the electrical throttle, automatic transmissions, electro-hydraulic brakes and parking brakes. For steering the hydraulic power steering has been replaced by the electrical power steering up to middle class cars, but is still based on the mechanical steering column. This means, that for this very safety critical chassis component one relies on a mechanical back-up in case of a failure of the power support.

Compared to fly-by wire systems drive-by-wire systems cannot have the high level of redundancies because of costs, maintenance issues and the large production numbers with are use by non trained drivers, as compared to professional pilots, and any kind of environment and usage. However, in general context of the electrification of automobiles and advanced driver assistance systems the future will show how far drive-by-wire systems will develop. The modern driver assistance and chassis control systems like ABS, ESC, ACC and suspension control are already “by-wire” or “bycontrol software” on higher levels.

Therefore this book is a timely compilation of the present and future development of fault-tolerant drive-by-wire systems by having a focus on the important issues of safety and reliability. I wish Professor Sohel Anwar and the authors of this e-book a very good success.

Rolf Isermann
Darmstadt, January 2011


Preface

Drive-By-Wire systems are still a long way off from their full potential, primarily due to reliability and safety concerns. While throttle-by-wire systems are commonplace in many high-end vehicles, brake-by-wire and steer-by-wire systems are still in the research and development stage with major automakers. Daimler-Benz introduced the first brake-by-wire system using electronically controlled hydraulic valves and pumps in the SL 500 and E-Class models as early as 2001. However, the high cost of these brake systems and some reliability / safety issues did not permit widespread adoption of these systems by the automotive industry. Thus the major automakers, in general, were discouraged from investing further in the development of drive-by-wire systems. However, researchers at universities and government labs continued to search for better solution to improve the reliability and safety of drive-by-wire systems in a cost effective manner.

Overall safety and reliability of drive by wire systems can be significantly improved via redundancy based system architecture with fault tolerant control methodology. This type of hardware-software solutions have already been successfully developed and implemented in fly-by-wire systems. For drive-by-wire systems, however, the challenge is to design a hardware-software architecture for enhanced safety and reliability in a cost effective manner. This e-book aims at addressing some of these challenges via a number of approaches, such as, analytical redundancy, system level reliability enhancements, and global positioning system assisted steer by wire system.

Fault tolerant control of drive by wire systems is the focus of this e-book. The authors of this e-book are experts in the field of fault tolerant drive by wire systems. Chapter 1 of this e-book gives an overview of the drive by wire systems and a brief background on the challenges facing such system for commercial viability. Chapter 2 presents system level reliability and enhancements to drive by wire systems. Chapter 3 introduces the dependability and functional safety of drive by wire systems. Chapter 4 describes a GPS (Global Positioning System) aided steer-by-wire control system for articulated vehicles. Chapter 5 presents a virtual operator model for construction equipment design. All of these chapters capture various aspects of safety and reliability of drive by wire systems which is the most challenging question today for such systems.

This e-book can be used as a reference book or as a textbook for a graduate course in the area of Safety and Reliability in the context of automotive control systems. It also offers some possibilities of further developments including important problems in this research area.

Sohel Anwar
Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
January, 2011

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Sohel Anwar
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Purdue School of Engineering and Technology
Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis
723 W. Michigan Street, SL 260N
Indianapolis
Indiana, 46202
USA




Contributor(s):
Giuseppe Buja
Department of Electrical Engineering
University of Padova
Via Gradenigo 6/a
Padova, 35131
Italy


Sabri Cetinkunt
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering
University of Illinois at Chicago
842 W. Taylor Street (MC 251)
Chicago
IL, 60607
USA


Ahmed Adel Elezaby
University of Illinois at Chicago
842 W. Taylor Street (MC 251)
Chicago
IL, 60607
USA


M. Abul Masrur
US Army RDECOM-TARDEC
RDTA-RS, MS-233
6501 E. 11 Mile Road
Warren
MI, 48397-5000
USA


Roberto Menis
Department of Electrotechnics
Electronics and Computer Science
University of Trieste
Via Valerio 10
Trieste, 34127
Italy


Rami Nasrallah
Caterpillar, Inc.
Peoria
IL
USA




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