Industrial Applications of Laser Remote Sensing


by

Tetsuo Fukuchi, Tatsuo Shiina

DOI: 10.2174/97816080534071120101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-340-7, 2012
ISBN: 978-1-60805-641-5



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Indexed in: Scopus

This e-book is an essential review of land-based laser sensing methods, such as differential absorption, Raman scattering, laser-indu...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i

Dennis K. Killinger

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Preface

- Pp. ii-iii (2)

Tetsuo Fukuchi and Tatsuo Shiina

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iv-v (2)

Tetsuo Fukuchi and Tatsuo Shiina

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Overview of Laser Remote Sensing Technology for Industrial Applications

- Pp. 3-15 (13)

Takao Kobayashi

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Optical Design for Near Range Lidar

- Pp. 16-36 (21)

Tatsuo Shiina

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Gas Sensing Using Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

- Pp. 37-59 (23)

Tetsuo Fukuchi

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Gas Sensing Using Raman Scattering

- Pp. 60-88 (29)

Hideki Ninomiya

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Marine Observation Lidar

- Pp. 89-98 (10)

Masahiko Sasano

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Plant and Vegetation Monitoring Using Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy

- Pp. 99-114 (16)

Kazunori Saito

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All-Fiber Coherent Doppler Lidar System for Wind Sensing

- Pp. 115-142 (28)

Shumpei Kameyama, Toshiyuki Ando, Kimio Asaka and Yoshihito Hirano

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3D Laser Radar for Traffic Safety System

- Pp. 143-152 (10)

Kiyohide Sekimoto, Kouichirou Nagata and Yutaka Hisamitsu

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Remote Sensing of Concrete Structures Using Laser Sonic Waves

- Pp. 153-169 (17)

Yoshinori Shimada and Oleg Kotyaev

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Minor Constituent Detection and Electric Field Measurement Using Remote Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

- Pp. 170-187 (18)

Takashi Fujii

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Concluding Remarks

- Pp. 188-189 (2)

Tetsuo Fukuchi

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Subject index

- Pp. 190-194 (5)

Tetsuo Fukuchi and Tatsuo Shiina

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Foreword

Lasers have been used as remote probes of the environment for close to 50 years, ever since the invention of the laser in 1960. Because of the extremely small divergence and high intensity of a laser beam, active laser remote sensing could be conducted at very large distances compared to other light sources or microwave/radio waves. In particular, an "optical radar" laser beam was bounced off the moon as early as 1962 using a Ruby laser at MIT Lincoln Laboratory, and also used for the detection of water vapor in the atmosphere as early as 1964 by Prof. Richard Schotland. During the past several decades, laser remote sensing (often called lidar, laser radar, or stand-off remote sensing) has become increasingly important in the detection and monitoring of the Earth's ozone hole, global climate change atmospheric gases, and a wide range of environmental trace species. All of these important lidar or laser remote sensing studies have shown that laser beams can be used as sensitive and unique optical spectroscopic probes of the environment and can detect a wide range of chemical and biological substances and targets at ranges out to several kilometers. As such, the use of laser probes in laser remote sensing often can be thought of as a "remote analytical chemistry laboratory" in that the chemical analysis is conducted at the far end of the laser beam.

The unique properties of optical and laser beams that lend themselves to remote sensing applications often use standard optical spectroscopy techniques, such as absorption, fluorescence, Doppler, Raman, and Mie/Rayleigh backscatter, for detection and monitoring of unique trace species and environmental substances. It is important to note that the same optical spectroscopy and laser remote sensing techniques can also be used at much shorter ranges on the order of several meters or less. The only difference between close-in or point optical spectroscopic detection techniques and longer range laser remote sensing is that different optical collection techniques are used to detect the emission optical signal, often using a telescope instead of a single collection lens, and that one usually uses the time-of-flight (i.e. 2-way lidar return delay of 6.6 microseconds for a range of 1000 m ) of the returned optical signal as an added discriminator against background noise. As such, laser remote sensing techniques are starting to be applied to a wide range of industrial applications involved in on-line monitoring of chemical species, process control, trace contaminant detection, and a wide range of optical spectroscopy sensing applications.

The book edited by Dr. Tetsuo Fukuchi and Prof. Tatsuo Shiina presents a comprehensive overview of laser remote sensing techniques and how they may be applied to industrial applications at much closer ranges, on the order of tens of meters or less. What is important is that these chapters explain the optical spectroscopic techniques used, and show that they have both remote sensing and close-range industrial applications. Chapters are written by experts in their field and present the fundamental laser spectroscopy and physics involved, show examples of laser remote sensing applications, and explain how this technique can be used in industry and process control applications. Chapters include basic lidar and laser spectroscopy theory, detection of stack exhaust gases, lidar sensing of methane and hydrogen leaks and marine oil spills, use of lasers for wind field mapping near wind power farms and airfields, and use of lasers to monitor plant and tree vegetation, minor trace species , vehicle traffic control, and defects or cracks in concrete structures. As such, the book should be particularly useful to laser remote sensing scientists in developing new laser spectroscopic instruments, for engineers involved in industrial and process control applications, and system engineers interested in the latest advances in this emerging and exciting field.

Dennis K. Killinger
University of South Florida
Tampa, FL
USA


Preface

This book covers industrial applications of laser remote sensing. Traditionally, laser remote sensing (lidar) has dealt with atmospheric measurement, with measurement ranges in the order of km. Therefore, lidar systems have been large in size and designed primarily for permanent installation and continuous measurement. However, for industrial applications, the system needs to be mobile or portable so that sensing could be performed at the necessary location at the necessary time, e.g. at regular servicing or maintenance, in case of accidents or malfunctions, at occasional environmental inspections.

There exist several books on laser remote sensing, e.g. R. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (John Wiley, 1984), T. Fujii and T. Fukuchi, eds., Laser Remote Sensing (Dekker, 2005), C. Weitcamp, ed., Lidar: Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere (Springer, 2005). These books mainly cover atmospheric measurement. Recent lidar development has focused on satellite-borne lidar, whose aim is global monitoring of water vapor, ozone, CO2, wind, clouds, aerosols. On the other hand, a book on applications of laser remote sensing to closer ranges, in the order of m to tens of m, has not been previously published. These ranges require remote sensing because they are too large for in situ measurement using conventional sensors or sampling methods, but are too small for applying conventional lidar for atmospheric measurement.

Laser remote sensing has several potential industrial applications in these closer measurement ranges, such as leak gas detection, pollutant detection, environment monitoring, wind profiling, and structural health monitoring. This book aims to provide some specific applications which may be useful to industry, as well as other applications such as marine environment monitoring, vegetation monitoring, and minor constituent monitoring, which are more oriented toward science, but may have applications to industry in the future.

An overview of laser remote sensing and its applications to industry are presented in Chapter 1. Various kinds of lidar and measurable quantities are described.

Conventional lidar design intended for atmospheric measurement does not allow sensing at very close range, because of insufficient overlap between the transmitted laser beam and the receiver field of view. In order to overcome the problem of insufficient overlap, new concepts on lidar design are under development for near field applications. The design of an in-line type lidar is covered in Chapter 2.

Lasers have found increased use in industrial applications such as gas leak detection and pollutant detection. The most common technique used for gas leak detection is laser absorption spectroscopy, which is covered in Chapter 3. Another technique used for gas leak detection is Raman scattering, whose application to hydrogen gas leaks is covered in Chapter 4. Hydrogen is a gas species which cannot be detected by absorption, and this recently developed technology could find wide use with the increasing introduction of hydrogen energy. Pollutant detection using differential absorption lidar, e.g. measurement of gas species in stack emission, is briefly covered in Chapter 3.

Laser remote sensing has wide applications, which are not limited to detection of gases. The applications to the marine environment, such as bathymetry, oil spill detection, and water quality inspection are presented in Chapter 5. Application to vegetation monitoring is covered in Chapter 6. Laser-induced fluorescence from chrollophyl can provide useful information on vegetation growth.

Laser sensing has also found use in safety and security. Although the death rate due to traffic accidents is declining every year owing to safer vehicles and better infrastructure, traffic accidents still rank at the top of the causes of accidental deaths. An example of the application of laser radar to traffic safety is covered in Chapter 7.

The increase in use of renewable energy sources has led to a rapid increase in electricity generation using wind power. For optimal siting of windmills, profiling of local winds is necessary. The all-fiber laser Doppler lidar, which has recently been developed, has dramatically decreased the size and power consumption, so that portable wind profiling has become possible. This is covered in Chapter 8.

An important social issue is the safety of infrastructure such as bridges and tunnels. The use of conventional ultrasound techniques is labor intensive, as it requires contact between the sensor and the object under testing. The application of laser ultrasound provides non-contact testing with a standoff distance of several meters. Recent developments in this field and application to inspection of concrete structures such as railway tunnels are covered in Chapter 9.

Lastly, remote Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for minute concentration detection is covered in Chapter 10. This method provides the equivalent of Atomic Emission (AE) spectroscopy in a remote configuration. Since no sampling is necessary, the technology could be useful for minute concentration detection in hazardous environments.

The affiliations of the authors of this book are distributed among academic institutions, private and government research institutes, and private companies. The distribution was chosen so that the content will vary from fundamental research to practical applications.

Although laser remote sensing is especially suited to plasmas and combustion fields because of its ability to perform non-contact measurement, the applications to these areas are not covered in this book, because comprehensive texts already exist. The interested reader is requested to refer to these texts, such as K. Muraoka and M. Maeda, Laser-Aided Diagnostics of Plasmas and Gases (Institute of Physics Press, 2001), A. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Taylor & Francis, 1996).

The editors hope that this book be a useful addition to the technical library of researchers and engineers interested in laser sensing and its applications.

Tetsuo Fukuchi
Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry
Japan


Tatsuo Shiina
Chiba University
Japan

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Tetsuo Fukuchi
Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry
Japan


Tatsuo Shiina
Chiba University
Japan




Contributor(s):
Toshiyuki Ando
Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
5-1-1 Ofuna
Kamakura
Kanagawa, 247-8501
Japan


Kimio Asaka
Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
5-1-1 Ofuna
Kamakura
Kanagawa, 247-8501
Japan


Takashi Fujii
Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry
2-6-1 Nagasaka
Yokosuka
Kanagawa, 240-0196
Japan


Tetsuo Fukuchi
Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry
2-6-1 Nagasaka
Yokosuka
Kanagawa, 240-0196
Japan


Yoshihito Hirano
Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
5-1-1 Ofuna
Kamakura
Kanagawa, 247-8501
Japan


Yutaka Hisamitsu
IHI Corporation
3-1-1 Toyosu, Koto-ku
Tokyo, 135-8710
Japan


Shumpei Kameyama
Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
5-1-1 Ofuna
Kamakura
Kanagawa, 247-8501
Japan


Takao Kobayashi
Fukui University
3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui
Fukui, 910-8507
Japan


Oleg Kotyaev
Institute for Laser Technology
2-6, Yamada-oka
Suita
Osaka, 565-0871
Japan


Kouichirou Nagata
IHI Corporation
3-1-1 Toyosu, Koto-ku
Tokyo, 135-8710
Japan


Hideki Ninomiya
Shikoku Research Institute
2109-8 Yashima-Nishimachi
Takamatsu
Kagawa, 761-0192
Japan


Kazunori SAITO
Shinshu University
4-17-1 Wakasato, Nagano
Nagano
380-8553
Japan


Masahiko Sasano
National Maritime Research Institute
6-38-1 Shinkawa
Mitaka
Tokyo, 181-0004
Japan


Kiyohide Sekimoto
IHI Corporation
3-1-1 Toyosu, Koto-ku
Tokyo, 135-8710
Japan


Tatsuo Shiina
Chiba University
1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku
Chiba, Chiba 263-8522
Japan


Yoshinori Shimada
Institute for Laser Technology
2-6, Yamada-oka
Suita
Osaka, 565-0871
Japan




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