Recent Advances in Insects and Other Arthropods

Book Series: Hemolymph Proteins and Functional Peptides

Volume 1

by

Muhammad Tufail, Makio Takeda

DOI: 10.2174/97816080540151120101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-401-5, 2012
ISBN: 978-1-60805-402-2
ISSN: 2213-2694 (Print)



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Recent molecular studies have revealed an overwhelming role of hemolymph proteins and functional peptides in invertebrate physiology. ...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i

Roger Huybrechts

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Preface

- Pp. ii

Muhammad Tufail and Makio Takeda

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iii-iv (2)

Muhammad Tufail and Makio Takeda

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Supportive Members

- Pp. v

Muhammad Tufail and Makio Takeda

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Hemolymph Lipoproteins: Role in Insect Reproduction

- Pp. 3-19 (17)

Muhammad Tufail and Makio Takeda

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Adipokinetic Hormones and Their Role in Lipid Mobilization in Insects

- Pp. 20-31 (12)

Dick J. Van der Horst and Kees W. Rodenburg

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Dynamics of Storage Proteins in Lepidoptera

- Pp. 32-61 (30)

Sumio Tojo, Yuehong Liu and Yiping Zheng

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Immune Response of Insects and Crustaceans

- Pp. 62-77 (16)

Akira Goto and Shoichiro Kurata

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Cardioactive or Inactive Neuropeptides of Insects

- Pp. 78-93 (16)

Karel Sláma

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Structures and Functions of Insect Midgut: The Regulatory Mechanisms by Peptides, Proteins and Related Compounds

- Pp. 94-110 (17)

Makio Takeda

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Neurohormones and Second Messengers in Lepidoptera: Male Sexual Development and Midgut Growth

- Pp. 111-127 (17)

Marcia J. Loeb

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Role of Conventional and Unconventional Stress Proteins During the Response of Insects to Traumatic Environmental Conditions

- Pp. 128-160 (33)

Joshua B. Benoit and Giancarlo Lopez-Martinez

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Insulin-Related Peptides in Insects and Other Arthropods

- Pp. 161-171 (11)

Takumi Suzuki and Masafumi Iwami

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ENF Peptides

- Pp. 172-182 (11)

Manabu Kamimura

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Index

- Pp. 183-184 (2)

Muhammad Tufail and Makio Takeda

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Foreword

This eBook on “Hemolymph Proteins and Functional Peptides: Recent Advances in Insects and Other Arthropods” represents an up-to-date compilation of the major functionalities of hemolymph proteins as there are lipid transport and energy mobilization realized by lipophorins, larval amino acid storage and yolk precursor functions in the adult as well as immune and stress responsive proteins. Evidently the hemolymph, a primary colonization substrate for invaders, supported by the inflow of antimicrobial peptides from both the fat body and the hemocytes, harbors complex but effective immune pathways. As a circulatory system, the impact of heartbeat changes on hemolymph functioning cannot be overestimated, however its assumed regulation by neuropeptides seems non-physiological. According to this primary transport role, the hemolymph assures a direct reciprocal interface between the midgut digestive system and all other organs, including the brain, which is mainly mediated by regulatory peptides, proteins and related compounds. The insulin-like censoring and signaling pathway, among others, communicates food and energy supplies to the insect assuring either initiation/continuation or arrest of major functionalities like reproduction. To complete this eminent list of functions dedicated to proteinaceous and peptidic hemolymph factors, final focus is directed towards the presence of the multifunctional ENF family type peptides helping the insects defence system/development in many aspects.

Being a generalist in insect physiology since 1977, I really enjoyed reading all these manuscripts in preview: they are really uploaded with most recent data in their fields of expertise. Indeed in each chapter the authors succeeded to expand the comprehensive knowledge of previous or even recent reviews of their research fields by critically surveying over 1100 papers. Whenever relevant, the authors shed some light to new ongoing or planned research and by doing so the readers’ curiosity to learn about results in the pipeline is awakened.

Evidently, as suggested by their title, some chapters are seemingly biased by the overwhelming data obtained in insect model organisms or related arthropod lab rats, however comparative interspecies approach, sometimes highlighting species-specific peculiarities, helps the in-depth understanding and eco-physiological significance of the fluctuations linked to hemolymph components and whenever necessary restricts the over-extrapolation of data that are only obtained in a single model organism.

The combined up-to-date knowledge about hemolymph factors, their origin and targets not only have fundamental value or feed healthy curiosity. Indeed the parallels between processes here described for insects and related arthropods and those known in vertebrates in general and mammals in particular underline the importance of continued reciprocal complimentary research. Evidently, the here discussed data and extensive interpretations here will be of direct benefit for those involved in integrated pest management.

The research of the last decennium was boosted by “omics” research and the genome-wide screenings shed light on the overall complexity of regulatory pathways. The revitalized functional protein/peptide research, originally restricted to trans-gene over-expression or knockout models, since the introduction of RNAi can be extended to most species. This single technological realization already accounts for more than thousands of recent “RNAi-insect” reference hits. This simple example underlines the value of regular up-to-date integrating reviews. We can only be respectful to the editors Dr. M. Tufail and Dr. M. Takeda for bringing together all these exciting data with the help of the respective authors.

Roger Huybrechts
Insect Physiology and Molecular Ethology
Dept. of Biology of the Catholic University of Leuven
Belgium


Preface

The aim of this eBook “Hemolymph Proteins and Functional Peptides: Recent Advances in Insects and Other arthropods” is to elucidate physiological roles, both at biochemical and molecular levels, of hemolymph proteins and functional peptides in reproduction, growth, development, and in immune system of insects and other arthropods. Recent molecular studies have revealed the importance of hemolymph proteins and functional peptides in physiological adaptations both in arthropods and vertebrates. These lineages share the common genes and mechanisms for equivalent functions, such as immune system, morphogenesis and biological clock to name a few and sometimes equivalent gene functions can be interchangeable between the two lineages, for example Pax6/eyeless, though their overall structures look, at least superficially, very different. Here resides one need of comparative study. While, however, in the vertebrate side this is well worked out, no inclusive textbook for hemplymph proteins and peptides has yet been published in the arthropod side. Second, sometimes the same family proteins and peptides are used in completely different manners from each phylogenic lineage but also within the same lineage. Also, multifunctional peptides are known, such as allatostatins, tachykinins, NPFs, CCAP etc. This book should provide a useful catalog for related proteins and peptides deployed for different ends, for example in the case of vitellogenin, lipophorin, mammalian lipid transporters and von Wibrant factor. This should be enjoyable to evolutionary-minded readers. We believe this book will be equally interesting for the students and scholars engaged in entomology, zoology, physiology and biochemistry, working in universities and other research institutions. This book provides comprehensive reviews of critical hemolymph proteins and functional peptides across a wide range of taxa. This book is the first of its kind as it deals with a wide range of molecules such as lipoproteins and their receptors, storage proteins, growth/differentiation factors, peptides involved in immune response, hemolymph coagulants, myomodulatory peptides, peptides regulating diuresis/apetite/satiety, neurohormones and second messengers, stress proteins/molecular chaperons, and insulin related peptides. In conclusion, this promotes synergistic interactions among experts/students from various geographic areas around the world, engaged in different subjects.

We are motivated to compile this book upon the retirement of Drs. Sumio Tojo, who have also contributed to this volume, Minoru Yamakawa and Yasuo Chinzei to commemorate their long time contributions. While finalizing this work, a big earthquake and tsunami beyond our imagination attacked the Northeast Japan, and subsequently some nuclear power plants collapsed. At the end, we express our condolence and compassion to the victims. We learned the power of nature this time but we shall show our pride rising again from here. This is our ground zero.

Muhammad Tufail & Makio Takeda
Kobe University
Japan

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Muhammad Tufail
Technology Kobe University
Japan


Makio Takeda
Graduate School of Agricultural Science Kobe University
Japan




Contributor(s):
Joshua B. Benoit
Division of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases School of Public Health
Yale University
New Haven
CT, 06511
USA


Akira Goto
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences
Tohoku University Aramaki
Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8578
Japan


Masafumi Iwami
Division of Life Sciences
Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology
Kanazawa University
Kanazawa, 920-1192
Japan


Manabu Kamimura
Invertebrate Gene Function Research Unit, Division of Insect Science
National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences
Tsukuba
Ibaraki, 305-8634
Japan


Shoichiro Kurata
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Tohoku University, Aramaki
Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8578
Japan


Yuehong Liu
Molecular Entomology Great Lakes Forestry Centre
Queen Street East
ON, P6A2E5
Canada


Marcia J. Loeb (retired)
U. S. Department of Agriculture
Insect Biocontrol Laboratory
Beltsville MD, 20705
USA


Giancarlo Lopez-Martinez
Department of Entomology and Nematology
University of Florida
Gainesville
FL, 32611
USA


Kees W. Rodenburg
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism Department of Biology
Institute of Biomembranes Utrecht University
The Netherlands


Karel Slama
Biological Centre of Czech Academy of Sciences
Institute of Entomology
Drnovská 507
Praha 6, 16100
Czeck Republic


Takumi Suzuki
Division of Life Sciences
Kanazawa University
Kanazawa, 920-1192
Japan


Makio Takeda
Graduate School of Agricultural Science Kobe University
Kobe, 657-8501
Japan


Sumio Tojo
Department of Applied Biological Sciences
Saga University, Honjyo-machi
Saga-shi, 840-8502
Japan


Muhammad Tufail
Organization of Advanced Science and Technology Kobe University
Kobe, 657-8501
Japan


Dick J. Van der Horst
Division of Endocrinology
Metabolism Department of Biology and Institute of Biomembranes
Utrecht University
The Netherlands


Yiping Zheng
Great Lakes Forestry Center
Queen Street East
Sault Ste Marie
ON, P6A2E5
Canada




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