Photonic Bandgap Structures Novel Technological Platforms for Physical, Chemical and Biological Sensing


by

Marco Pisco, Andrea Cusano, Antonello Cutolo

DOI: 10.2174/97816080544801120101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-448-0, 2012
ISBN: 978-1-60805-507-4

  
  




This E-Book covers the research and the development of a novel generation of photonic devices for sensing applications. The E-Book s...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

Foreword , Pp. i

Brian T. Cunningham
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Preface , Pp. ii

Marco Pisco, Andrea Cusano and Antonello Cutolo
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List of Contributors , Pp. iii-iv (2)

and .
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Theoretical Background of Photonic Crystals: Bandgap and Dispersion Properties , Pp. 3-22 (20)

Caterina Ciminelli
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Analysis of Photonic Crystal Structures , Pp. 23-48 (26)

Anand Gopinath
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Photonic Crystal Technologies: From Theories to Practice , Pp. 49-83 (35)

Dennis W. Prather, Shouyuan Shi, Ahmed Sharkawy, Janusz Murakowski and Garrett J. Schneider
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Photonic Crystal Fiber: Theory and Fabrication , Pp. 84-92 (9)

Annamaria Cucinotta
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Nanostructured Organic Photonics , Pp. 93-117 (25)

Andrea Camposeo, Elisa Mele, Luana Persano and Dario Pisignano
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Slow Light for Sensing , Pp. 118-134 (17)

Michael A. Fiddy
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Circular Bragg and Photonic Crystal Resonators , Pp. 135-156 (22)

Jacob Scheuer, Eyal Benisty and Ori Weiss
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Photonic Crystal Fiber for Chemical Sensing Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering , Pp. 157-179 (23)

Yun Han and Henry Du
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Guided Resonances in Photonic Crystal Slabs for Sensing Applications , Pp. 180-194 (15)

Armando Ricciardi, Marco Pisco, Giuseppe Castaldi, Vincenzo Galdi, Stefania Campopiano, Antonello Cutolo and Andrea Cusano
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Physical, Chemical and Biological Sensors Based on Photonic Crystals , Pp. 195-215 (21)

Sanja Zlatanovic and Annette Grot
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Photonic Crystal Fibers for Physical, Chemical and Biological Sensing , Pp. 216-231 (16)

Roberto Corradini and Stefano Selleri
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Subject Index , Pp. 232-233 (2)

Marco Pisco, Andrea Cusano and Antonello Cutolo
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Foreword

Since the first formal studies of multi-layer dielectric stacks by Lord Rayleigh in 1887 and subsequent research that lead to the term “photonic crystal” to be coined by Eli Yablonovitch and Sajeev John in 1987, the mathematics that describe the formation of photonic band gaps, low loss waveguiding, and standing wave optical resonances have included terms for the physical dimensions of the structure and the refractive indices of the structure’s materials. As the menu of possible photonic crystal structures has grown to include 3-dimensional “woodpile” stacks, inverse opals, 2-dimensional slabs, guided mode resonant filters, and photonic crystal fiber, the menu of material choices has also expanded to include a cornucopia of possibilities that include silicon, compound semiconductors, dielectrics, and organic (carbon-based) media. It was perhaps inevitable that scientists would begin to manipulate the physical “constants” of these photonic crystal structures (period, thickness, refractive index) to transform photonic crystals into sensors.

In many respects, the photonic crystal is an ideal sensor system. By simply illuminating the structure with a laser, LED, or incandescent lamp, the reflected or transmitted spectrum reveals a great deal about its physical makeup. With the advent of miniature spectrometers, low-power LEDs, and semiconductor lasers, instrumentation for measuring the properties of photonic crystals has become miniature, inexpensive, and rugged. Meanwhile, the ability to inexpensively fabricate photonic crystal structures, despite their nanometer-scale features, has made remarkable advances, which now make them suitable even for sensor applications in which the device will be single-use disposable, as in point-of-care medical diagnostics. As a result, photonic crystal sensors allow high resolution and rapid measurement of structures within microfluidic channels, biomedical tubing, microtiter plates, test tubes, and flasks without the need for electrical contacts, a source of power on the device itself, or any direct physical contact to the detection instrument.

This eBook represents many of the exciting sensing applications that utilize photonic crystal structures. In it, you will find the fundamental operating principles of photonic crystals and a description of the analytical methods that are used to derive their optical properties from Maxwell’s Equations. The text describes methods for creating photonic crystal structures, and in particular stresses designs that enable the structure to interact with gaseous or liquid materials. The ability for photonic crystals to generate high intensity evanescent electric fields on their surfaces allows for chemical sensing using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering, while the incorporation of materials into their structure that exhibit optical gain enables the creation of light emitting devices that can be used as sensors. The ability of photonic crystals to form optical standing waves results in “slow light” and associated electric field enhancements that can be used for sensing either through detection of shifts in the resonant wavelength due to biomolecule adsorption or through the enhanced excitation of fluorescent dyes that are used to “tag” biomolecules such as DNA or proteins.

I hope that you will find this text to be a useful guide and introduction to the many exciting ways that photonic crystals are being applied to a variety of problems in sensing. Photonic crystal-based sensing is an exciting multidisciplinary field that involves electromagnetics, optics, nanofabrication, material science, chemistry, biology, and (sometimes) mechanical engineering. It is the goal of the authors to welcome the enthusiasm and ideas of new students with backgrounds in these fields to join with us in the goal of extending photonic crystals into high precision sensing tools that can find applications in research and commercial products.

Brian T. Cunningham
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Department of Bioengineering
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
USA


Preface

Photonic Crystals (PhCs) have inspired a lot of interest and many research efforts have been devoted to their possible applications in communications and information fields due to the opportunity they offer to efficiently manipulate the light on wavelength and sub-wavelength scale. The outstanding potential of photonic bandgap structures encourage their employment also in sensing applications. As a matter of fact, the microstructure of the PhCs opens up for a large degree of freedom in optical waveguides design, enabling the implementation of novel and intriguing transduction principles for sensing applications, by basically exploiting the dependence of the PhCs’ spectral properties on the physical and geometrical features of the crystal itself. Furthermore, the possibility to realize a PhC through holes-patterned in a dielectric would allow the integration with sensitive materials in order to improve the functionality of the final device for physical, chemical and biological sensing, either tailoring the sensing system performance or conferring selectivity capability.

On these bases, PhCs offer a new possibility of realizing effective and compact sensors and open the way for the development of ‘lab-on-chip’ portable devices which allow several chemical and biological analysis to be performed in parallel onto the same platform, by taking advantage of the large scale integration and wavelength multiplexing capabilities of the PhCs.

In spite of the outlined potential of the PhCs for physical, chemical and biological sensing applications, the PhCs fabrication processes, the defects introduction, as well as the integration with additional materials enabling sensing capabilities, imply several challenges of physical realization and process availability, that still prevent PhCs to be fully exploited in the sensing fields.

Up to now, great effort has been carried out by the scientific community to develop photonic devices, however, the weak integration of competencies required to address this challenge, intrinsically multidisciplinary, limits the capability to achieve high performances devices. A highly integrated approach involving continuous interactions of different backgrounds aimed to optimize each single aspect with a continuous feed-back, would enable the definition of an overall and global design concept.

In this scientific context, this eBook would sustain the research and the development of a novel generation of photonic devices for physical, chemical and biological sensing. The eBook would provide not only the basics knowledge of the PhC theory and technology and the main applications to date, but also a significant insight in crossover researches, technologies and sciences that could enable the concurrent addressing of the issues related to the different aspects of the PhC sensors’ global design such as the identification, functionalization and activation of sensing materials, the development of novel optical transduction principles, the exploitation of advanced technologies and light-matter interaction’s phenomena at micro and nano-scale.

In the chapters 1-4 of the eBook, a brief review of PhCs’ basic concepts, numerical and technological tools useful in the design and understanding of novel PhCs configurations is provided for the readers. In the chapters 5-9, we propose a selection of crossover topics emerging in the scientific community as breaking through researches, technologies and sciences for the development of novel technological platforms for physical, chemical and biological sensing.

The eBook ends with two chapters focused on the description of the main PhCs sensors to date.

We would like to thank Prof. Brian T. Cunningham for writing the foreword and Bentham Science Publishers for their support and efforts. One of the editors (A.C.) likes to dedicate this eBook to his women: Maria Emilia, Maria Teresa, Maria Alessandra. The editor M.P. dedicates this eBook to his daughters Laura and Giulia.

Marco Pisco, Andrea Cusano, Antonello Cutolo
University of Sannio
Italy

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Marco Pisco
University of Sannio
Italy


Andrea Cusano
University of Sannio
Italy


Antonello Cutolo
University of Sannio
Italy




Contributor(s):
Eyal Benisty
Department of Physical Electronics
School of Electrical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University
Tel-Aviv, 69978
Israel


Pier Stefania Campopiano
Department of Technology
University of Naples “Parthenope”
Centro Direzionale di Napoli Isola C4
Napoli, 80143
Italy


Caterina Ciminelli
Optoelectronics Laboratory, Politecnico di Bari
Bari, I-70125
Italy


Roberto Corradini
Department of Organic and Industrial Chemistry
University of Parma
Italy


Andrea Cusano
Optoelectronic Division – Engineering Department
University of Sannio

Benevento
Corso Garibaldi 107, 82100
Italy


Antonello Cutolo
Optoelectronic Division – Engineering Department
University of Sannio
Benevento
Corso Garibaldi 107, 82100
Italy


Henry Du
Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science
Stevens Institute of Technology
Hoboken
NJ , 07030
USA


Michael A. Fiddy
Center for Optoelectronics and Optical Communications
University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Charlotte
NC , 28223I
USA


Vincenzo Galdi
CNR-SPIN and Waves Group, Department of Engineering
University of Sannio
Benevento, I-82100
Italy


Anand Gopinath
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis
MN , 55455
USA


Annette Grot
Pacific Biosciences, Inc.
1505 Adams Drive, Menlo Park
California , 94025-1451
USA


Vincent Sollars
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology
Marshall University
Huntington
WV, 25755
USA


Yun Han
Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science
Stevens Institute of Technology
Hoboken
NJ , 07030
USA


Elisa Mele
Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (I.I.T.)
Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnologies
via Barsanti 1
Arnesano
LE, I-73010
Italy


Janusz Murakowski
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
University of Delaware, Newark
Delaware , 19716
USA


Luana Persano
NNL, National Nanotechnology Laboratory of CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze
Università del Salento
via Arnesano
Lecce, I-73100
Italy


Marco Pisco
Optoelectronic Division – Engineering Department
University of Sannio
Corso Garibaldi 107
Benevento , 82100
Italy


Dario Pisignano
NNL, National Nanotechnology Laboratory of Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR
Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”

via Arnesano
Lecce, I-73100
Italy


Dennis W. Prather
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
University of Delaware, Newark
Delaware , 19716
USA


Armando Ricciardi
Optoelectronic Division – Engineering Department
University of Sannio
Corso Garibaldi 107
Benevento , 82100
Italy


Jacob Scheuer
Department of Physical Electronics
School of Electrical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University
Tel-Aviv , 69978
Israel


Garrett J. Schneider
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
University of Delaware, Newark
Delaware , 19716
USA


Stefano Selleri
Department Information Engineering
University of Parma
Italy


Ahmed Sharkawy
University of Delaware, Newark
Delaware , 19716
USA


Shouyuan Shi
University of Delaware, Newark
Delaware , 19716
USA


Ori Weiss
Department of Physical Electronics
School of Electrical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University
Tel-Aviv, 69978
Israel


Sanja Zlatanovic
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
University of California San Diego
9500 Gilman Drive
La Jolla
CA , 92093
USA




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