Current Topics in Menopause


by

Volodymyr Dvornyk

DOI: 10.2174/97816080545341130101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-453-4, 2013
ISBN: 978-1-60805-515-9

  
  




Menopause is a significant event in a woman’s life as is generally considered as an indicator for senescence in women. Evidence sugges...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

Foreword , Pp. i-ii (2)

Andrea R. Genazzani

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Preface , Pp. iii-iv (2)

Volodymyr Dvornyk

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List of Contributors , Pp. v-vii (3)

Volodymyr Dvornyk

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A Life Course Approach to Reproductive Aging , Pp. 3-19 (17)

Sarah E. Tom and Gita D. Mishra

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Genetics of Menopause and Menopausal Age , Pp. 20-53 (34)

Volodymyr Dvornyk

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The Endocrinology of Perimenopause - New Definitions and Understandings of Hormonal and Bone Changes , Pp. 54-83 (30)

Jerilynn C. Prior, Vanadin Seifert-Klauss and Georgina Hale

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Bone Remodelling in Menopause: Biological and Pathological Aspects , Pp. 84-105 (22)

Manuel Muñoz-Torres and Antonia García-Martín

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Estrogen and Cognition: A Matter of Months? , Pp. 106-125 (20)

Eef Hogervorst

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Menopause and the Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases , Pp. 126-142 (17)

Marco Stramba-Badiale

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Management of Obesity in Menopause: Lifestyle Modification, Medication, Bariatric Surgery and Personalized Treatment , Pp. 143-162 (20)

Yosefa Avraham and Sapir Nachum

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Menopause, Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes Mellitus , Pp. 163-212 (50)

Eleni I. Boutati and Sotirios A. Raptis

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Assessing and Managing the Risk of Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women: Opportunities and Challenges , Pp. 213-253 (41)

Victor G. Vogel

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New Insights into Pathology of Endometrial Carcinoma at Menopause , Pp. 254-314 (61)

Efthimios Sivridis and Alexandra Giatromanolaki

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Adnexal Mass and Ovarian Cancer in Menopause , Pp. 315-325 (11)

Tanja Pejovic and Farr Nezhat

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Treatment Regimens for the Menopause , Pp. 326-384 (59)

Barry G. Wren

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The Effect of Complementary and Alternative Therapy at Menopause: Trick or Treat? , Pp. 385-413 (29)

Lily Stojanovska and Viki Kitanovska

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Premature Menopause , Pp. 414-441 (28)

Amanda Vincent and Elizabeth Farrell

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Subject Index , Pp. 442-447 (6)

Volodymyr Dvornyk

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Foreword

In 1000 B.C. life expectancy was only 18 year; by 100 B.C., the time of Caesar, it had reached 25 years. In 1900 in United States, life expectancy has reached only 49 years.

Today, a woman who reaches 54 can expect to reach the age of 84 years and the elderly population is now the largest contributor to illness and human need in the United States and Europe. Our worldwide success in postponing death has increased the upper segment of the demographic development and by 2050, China will contain more people older than 65 years of age than the number of people of all ages currently living in United States.

This evolution in demography has increased the need for the development of new therapeutic strategies to promote successful aging, defined as low probability of disease, high cognitive and physical capacity and active engagement in life.

The best health strategy is to change the slope, the rate at which illness develops, postponing the clinical illness, and if it is postponed long enough, effectively preventing it.

In this regard, menopause become an opportunity and, at the same time, an obligation for clinicians and heath care providers. The knowledge of the physiology of reproductive aging and its long-term consequences for women’s health may underlie critical aspects of illness development. Together, medical intervention at this time of life may offers women years of benefit and a fascinating strategy for a successful aging.

Thus, in the aftermath of the Women’ Health Initiative studies, both the clinical and basic science communities were required to analyze and build up a sense on divergent results among experimental findings, observational data and randomized controlled trials. The scientific community formally debates the role of different HRT formulations, hormone doses, time of treatment initiation since the menopause and the age of treated women.

This eBook explores many aspects and current topics of menopause, from epidemiological definition to updated debates on the role of hormone therapy, analyzing the effects of hormones in critical targets, such as the cardiovascular tissue, the brain and the bone. The chapters are authored by outstanding investigators in the field who are recognized for their expertise.

For scientists, clinicians and students, this eBook provides extensive and valuable information and represents a useful instrument to understand and manage menopause successfully.

Andrea R. Genazzani, MD
University of Pisa
Italy


Preface

Menopause is one of the most important physiological events in a woman’s life. It signifies the end of a reproductive period and is a hallmark of senescence in women. Apart from this, menopause has gained increased attention as a trigger of many complex psychological and postmenopausal health problems, such as anxiety, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorder and others. Menopausal symptoms and associated disorders are of great importance for public health. Just imagine: more than half of the human population experience some of them. Therefore proper management of menopause will definitely contribute to healthy aging and the overall well-being of women.

This eBook showcases the most contemporary knowledge about menopause: its aetiology and management. It is targeted at the wide audience of students and medical professionals in various areas, including but not limited to obstetrics and gynaecology, reproductive health, gerontology, oncology and public health.

The first three chapters cover life-style, physiological and genetic factors, which determine menopause and its onset. In chapter 2, special attention is paid to the data about a shared genetic basis between menopause and associated health complications.

Chapters 4-8 summarize available data about common systemic disorders associated with menopause: osteoporosis, dementia, cardiovascular diseases, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Most common risk factors for these disorders, including estrogen exposure, are comprehensively reviewed. Each chapter discusses available treatment options with particular emphasis on hormone replacement therapy (HRT).

Three most common types of gynaecological malignancies, breast, ovarian and endometrial cancers, and their treatment, are considered in Chapters 9-11.

In Chapters 12 and 13 two main approaches at treatment of menopausal symptoms are presented. HRT is currently a prevailing treatment option and its pros and cons are discussed in Chapter 12. However, alternative methods of non-hormonal menopause therapy become more and more popular and readily available. Their efficacy and safety are a topic of Chapter 13.

Premature menopause, occurring before the age of 40, may result from several causes. Some of them are well established, whereas the others have largely unknown aetiology. Risk factors, causes and complications of premature menopause are reviewed in Chapter 14.

The authors of this eBook hope that their efforts will benefit not only the medical professionals but also the general readers.

On behalf of all contributors I would like to thank Prof. Andrea Genazzani for writing the foreword and Bentham Science Publishers for their support.

Volodymyr Dvornyk,
University of Hong Kong
PR China


List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Volodymyr Dvornyk
University of Hong Kong
P.R. China




Contributor(s):
Yosefa Avraham
Department of Human Nutrition and Metabolism and School of Public Health
Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School
Jerusalem,
Israel


Eleni I. Boutati
Professor, Athens University Medical School, 2nd Department of Internal Medicine
Research Institute and Diabetes Center, Attikon University General Hospital
1 Rimini St
Athens, 12462
Greece


Volodymyr Dvornyk
Associate Professor, School of Biological Sciences
University of Hong Kong
Pokfulam Road, Pokfulam
Hong Kong SAR
PR China


Elizabeth Farrell
FRANZCOG, FRCOG, Professor, Head, Menopause Unit
Monash Medical Centre, Southern Health
246 Clayton Road, Clayton
Victoria, 3168
Australia


Antonia García-Martín
Bone Metabolic Unit, Endocrinology Division
University Hospital San Cecilio
Avenida Dr Olóriz 16
Granada, 18012
Spain


Alexandra Giatromanolaki
Associate Professor, Department of Pathology
Democritus University of Thrace Medical School
University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis
Alexandroupolis , 68100
Greece


Georgina E. Hale
Clinical Lecturer, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
University of Sydney
Queen Elizabeth II Building, D02
Sydney
NSW, 2006
Australia


Eef Hogervorst
Applied Cognitive Research, SSEHS
Brockington Building
Loughborough , LE11 3TU
United Kingdom


Viki Kitanovska
School of Biomedical and Health Science, Faculty of Health
Science and Engineering, Victoria University
Melbourne, Vic
Australia


Gita D. Mishra
Professor of Life Course Epidemiology
School of Population Health
The University of Queensland
Herston, QLD , 4006
Australia


Manuel Muñoz-Torres
Bone Metabolic Unit, Endocrinology Division
University Hospital San Cecilio
Avenida Dr Olóriz 16
Granada, 18012
Spain


Sapir Nachum
Department of Human Nutrition and Metabolism and School of Public Health
Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School
Jerusalem
Israel


Farr Nezhat
FACOG, St. Luke’s - Roosevelt Medical Center
Columbia University
New York
NY
USA


Tanja Pejovic
Oregon Health & Science University, Portland
Oregon
USA


Jerilynn C. Prior
Professor, Endocrinology and Metabolism
Department of Medicine, Centre for Menstrual Cycle
Ovulation Research (CeMCOR)
2775 Laurel Street
Vancouver, V5Z 1M9
B.C. Canada


Sotirios A. Raptis
Professor, Athens University Medical School
2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Research Institute and Diabetes Center
Attikon University General Hospital, 1 Rimini St.
Athens, 12462
Greece


Vanadin Seifert-Klauss
Associate Profesor, Women’s Clinic, Obstetrics and Gynecology
Technical University of Munich
Ismaninger Str. 22
Munich
German


Efthimios Sivridis MD
University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis
Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace Medical School
Alexandroupolis , 68100
Greece


Lily Stojanovska
School of Biomedical and Health Science, Faculty of Health
Science and Engineering, Victoria University
Melbourne, Vic
Australia


Marco Stramba-Badiale
Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, IRCCS
Istituto Auxologico Italiano
Via Mosè Bianchi, 90
Milan, 20149
Italy


Sarah E. Tom
Group Health Research Institute
1730 Minor Ave., Suite 1600
Seattle
WA, 9810
USA


Amanda J. Vincent
Menopause Unit, Monash Medical Centre
Southern Health, Clayton
Victoria
Australia


Victor G. Vogel
Director of Cancer Services, Geisinger Health System
100 N. Academy Ave., M.C. 20-01
Danville
PA , 7822-2001
USA


Barry G. Wren
Edgecliff Menopause Clinic
503/180 Ocean St
Edgecliff
NSW , 2027
Australia




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