Atmospheric Flow Fields: Theory, Numerical Methods and Software Tools


by

G. Latini, R. Cocci Grifoni, S. Tascini

DOI: 10.2174/97816080548311120101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-483-1, 2012
ISBN: 978-1-60805-627-9



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This e-book is a collection of chapters on practical and theoretical aspects of atmospheric flows over flat and complex terrain, with ...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i-ii (2)

Marco Pacetti

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Preface

- Pp. iii-iv (2)

G. Latini, R. Cocci Grifoni and S. Tascini

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List of Contributors

- Pp. v

G. Latini, R. Cocci Grifoni and S. Tascini

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The Structure of the Atmosphere

- Pp. 3-41 (39)

Giovanni Latini and Roberta Cocci Grifoni

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Synoptic and Mesoscale Circulations

- Pp. 42-56 (15)

Simone Tascini

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Coastal Air Pollution Meteorology and Meteorological Models

- Pp. 57-109 (53)

Simone Tascini and Mariano Pierantozzi

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Selected Applications of Coastal Valley Meteorology

- Pp. 110-133 (24)

Roberta Cocci Grifoni and Giovanni Latini

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Fundamentals of Air Pollution Mathematical Modeling

- Pp. 134-152 (19)

Roberta Cocci Grifoni and R. D’Onofrio

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Advection-Diffusion in the Atmosphere: Equations and Solutions

- Pp. 153-173 (21)

Tiziano Tirabassi and Marco T. Vilhena

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Estimation of the Lower Atmospheric Turbulence Parameters by Sodar-Rass Unit and Sonic Anemometer

- Pp. 174-184 (11)

Renato Ricci, Roberta Cocci Grifoni and Marco Mazzieri

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Appendix A: List of Air Quality Models

- Pp. 185-212 (28)

G. Latini, R. Cocci Grifoni and S. Tascini

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Appendix B: List of Weather Databases

- Pp. 213-215 (3)

G. Latini, R. Cocci Grifoni and S. Tascini

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Index

- Pp. 216-219 (4)

G. Latini, R. Cocci Grifoni and S. Tascini

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Foreword

The emissions of polluting agents in the atmosphere due to anthropogenic activities are a global threat both to the environment and to the ecosystems. From this point of view, the meteorological variables play a key role, as they can trigger forcing effects able to either worsen or improve the quality of the air.

The EC has ratified the UN Convention on climate changes and consequently acceded to the Kyoto Protocol on a reduction of polluting gases. Under these treaties the international Community has committed to comply with those policies necessary to reduce atmospheric emissions.

These policies mainly provide for a reduction of polluting emissions deriving from the use of fossil fuels versus incentive measures for renewable energy sources.

Monitoring the flows of polluting gases released by the anthropogenic systems has become an urgent priority in order to disperse and diffuse those gases according to the environment variables and geomorphologic characteristics of an area. In this sense, the use of mathematical models able to forecast phenomena of polluting gases release and dispersion requires the skilful utilization of atmospheric data.

The whole of harmful effects due to the action of unbalancing polluting (alteration) factors affecting the lower atmosphere, and therefore living beings, are a consequence of the byproducts of human activities dispersing into the air (factories, car exhausts, etc.), and natural components. A shared commitment to both reduce its causes and gain a detailed understanding of the phenomena and processes that determine an excess of polluting agents is therefore essential in order to control their impact. To forecast the atmospheric polluting phenomena it is necessary a knowledge of the dynamics of the lower part of the atmosphere where human activities take place – specifically the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL), the interface between the surface and the free atmosphere, and therefore under the direct influence of the processes at ground level.

The issue addressed in this text is to attentively analyze the atmospheric flow fields within the PBL, and the possible influences of certain meteorological phenomena in the presence of polluting incidents. It is common knowledge that meteorology plays a key role in dispersing the atmospheric pollutants; specifically, the development of certain mesoscale circulation phenomena can jeopardize the quality of the air in the regions involved, due to their reduced diluting capacity.

Moreover, the characteristics of a specific region make the analysis of the diffusive phenomena, and the respective atmospheric dynamics, even more complex. The presence of the sea in the Italian regions surveyed - valley-coastal areas or with a complex orography, is doubtlessly the characteristic that influences most meteorology in the areas surveyed.

This volume features a collection of useful and interesting theoretic and experimental contributions on atmospheric flows through anemological, energetic and air quality assessments regarding complex regions. These contributions acknowledge the importance of both the dispersive and diffusive phenomena in the atmosphere, but also the possible development of renewable energy sources thanks to a thorough investigation on atmospheric dynamics.

The challenging relation between energy and environment has always been emblematic: the preservation of the environment, life standards, and the very salvation of our planet have been growing momentum among the interests to be protected, and therefore drawn the line on the importance of development, particularly of fossil energy as a primary source for development itself.

The sustainable development formula has therefore been drawn up to match the development with the environment demands. This formula is partially ambiguous since it still presupposes a priority of a value – the development, vis-à-vis the environment is considered as a mere limit. The solution of this deep dichotomy can only come through a thorough knowledge of the meteorologic-climatic aspects and the energetic potentialities of a specific region, so that their advantageous use aiming at improving the difficult relation between energy and environment can be achieved.

Marco Pacetti
Rector of the Polytechnic University of Marche
Italy


Preface

This volume is a collection of lectures on practical and theoretical aspects of atmospheric flows over flat and complex terrain with applications to air pollution and wind energy.

The lectures are the result of ten years of research on the dynamical behaviour of the Planetary Boundary Layer that has a direct effect on the air quality and on the boundary layer parameterization schemes used in local, regional and global models.

It is divided into two main parts. The first, which comprises three chapters, presents the structure of the Planetary Boundary Layer with emphasis in the region adjacent to the ground, the Synoptic Mesoscale Meteorology and Coastal Air Pollution and complex terrain Meteorology. The second, Chaps. 5 to 8, discusses on the planetary boundary-layer (PBL) parameterization that is a key issue for the definition of initial wind flow fields in diagnostic models, meteorological prognostic models (RAMS, MM5, WRF), the estimation of the lower atmospheric turbulence parameters by remote sensing technique, the fundamentals of Air Pollution Mathematical Modeling, an analytical solution for the nonstationary two-dimensional advection–diffusion equation to simulate the pollutant dispersion in the planetary boundary layer (the GILTT solution of the advection–diffusion equation), the selected case studies of complex terrain meteorology and an estimation of the lower atmospheric turbulence parameters by remote sensing tools.

In the appendix, will be found a complete list of available databases and software will be followed.

The unique feature of this book is that beyond the theoretical treatments of the analytical and numerical techniques, it includes a number of tools where the techniques presented in the main part are implemented and can be run by the reader. These practical tools can be used to easily test selected mathematical formulation or performing a swift sensitivity analysis.

The first one, Hmix, aims to a mixing height evaluation in convective condition over land, based on the Gryning-Batcharova approach. The second tool (RD) is dedicated to the Representative Day identification. Based on the Tirabassi et al. approach, the representative day is constituted by the actual data of the day, in the considered period, where the sum of the mean-square differences between its monitored quantities, averaged within each hour, and the same quantities for all other days at the same hour is minimized. The third tool (Prometeo) is again around the PBL characterization by elementary measurements at surface level evaluated. Based on operational methods suggested by Holstag and Van Ulden (1983) the tool allows the evaluation of Monin-Obukhov length, fiction velocity and surface heat fluxes.

All the tools will be provided with a Windows GUI and designed with a user-friendly, interactive conception in order to minimize the required computer expertise and to be readily useful to a wider number of users.

G. Latini
Department of Energetics
Polytechnic University of Marche
Italy

R. Cocci Grifoni and S. Tascini
School of Architecture and Design “E. Vittoria”
Camerino University, Ascoli Piceno,
Italy

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
G. Latini
Department of Energetics
Polytechnic University of Marche
Italy


R. Cocci Grifoni
School of Architecture and Design “E. Vittoria”
Camerino University
Ascoli Piceno
Italy


S. Tascini
School of Architecture and Design “E. Vittoria”
Camerino University
Ascoli Piceno
Italy




Contributor(s):
Giovanni Latini
Department of Energetics
Polytechnic University of Marche
Italy


Marco Mazzieri
Department of Energetics
Polytechnic University of Marche
Italy


Marco T. Vilhena
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Porto Alegre
RS
Brasil


Mariano Pierantozzi
Department of Energetics
Polytechnic University of Marche
Italy


Renato Ricci
Department of Energetics
Polytechnic University of Marche
Italy


Roberta Cocci Grifoni
School of Architecture and Design “E. Vittoria”
Camerino University
Ascoli Piceno
Italy


Rosalba D’Onofrio
School of Architecture and Design “E. Vittoria”
Camerino University
Ascoli Piceno
Italy


Simone Tascini
School of Architecture and Design “E. Vittoria”
Camerino University
Ascoli Piceno
Italy


Tiziano Tirabassi
Institute ISAC of CNR
Bologna
Italy




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