Outcomes Assessment in End - Stage Kidney Disease Measurements and Applications in Clinical Practice


by

Paraskevi Theofilou

DOI: 10.2174/97816080573511130101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-735-1, 2013
ISBN: 978-1-60805-736-8



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With an increase of the population of elderly people in modern society due to advances in medicine and healthcare facilities, there is...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword by Stanton Newman

- Pp. i-ii (2)

Stanton Newman

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Foreword by Robert A. Cummins

- Pp. iii-iv (2)

Robert A. Cummins

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Preface

- Pp. v

Paraskevi Theofilou

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List of Contributors

- Pp. vi-ix (4)

Paraskevi Theofilou

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Introduction to Outcomes Assessment in End - Stage Kidney Disease

- Pp. 3-11 (9)

Paraskevi Theofilou

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Definitions and Domains of Health - Related Quality of Life

- Pp. 12-24 (13)

Barbara Barcaccia

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Assessing Health - Related Quality of Life in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: The Use of General and Specific Instruments

- Pp. 25-46 (22)

Stefania S. Grigoriou, Christina Karatzaferi and Giorgos K. Sakkas

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Health-Related Quality of Life Outcomes Among Patients on Maintenance Dialysis

- Pp. 47-79 (33)

Haikel A. Lim and Konstadina Griva

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Quality of Life Assessment in Kidney Transplantation

- Pp. 80-90 (11)

Pavlos Malindretos, Stamatina Zili and Pantelis Sarafidis

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Influence of Kidney Transplantation on Cognitive Function in End - Stage Kidney Disease Patients

- Pp. 91-111 (21)

Josipa Radic, Mislav Radic and Katarina Dodig Curkovic

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Treatment Adherence in Patients Undergoing Dialysis

- Pp. 112-137 (26)

Alden Y. Lai and Konstadina Griva

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A Systematic Review of Interventions to Increase Hemodialysis Adherence: 2007-2012

- Pp. 138-166 (29)

Michelle L. Matteson and Cynthia Russell

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Evaluating the Psychological Burden and Quality of Life in Caregivers of Patients Under Dialysis

- Pp. 167-187 (21)

Georgios K. Tzitzikos and Constantinos M. Togas

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Stress Management, Loss and Grief in Renal Nurses

- Pp. 188-197 (10)

Sofia Zyga, Maria Malliarou, Maria Athanasopoulou and Athena Kalokairinou

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Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease: A Comparative Cost Analysis of Bicarbonate Dialysis and Haemodiafiltration

- Pp. 198-207 (10)

Paraskevi Theofilou and Helen Panagiotaki

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The Economic Burden of Dialysis Patients in Belgium: a Comparison Between Haemo and Peritoneal Dialysis

- Pp. 208-222 (15)

Max Dratwa, Anne-Marie Bogaert, Koen Bouman, Xavier Warling, Remi Hombrouckx, Mario Schurgers, Pierre Dupont, Anne Vereerstraeten, Guy Van Roost, Karin Caekelbergh, Mark Lamotte and Suzanne Laplante

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Conclusion - Use of Patient Reported Outcomes Measures by the Pharmaceutical Industry

- Pp. 223-226 (4)

Paraskevi Theofilou

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Index

- Pp. 227-237 (11)

Paraskevi Theofilou

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Foreword

Foreword by Robert A. Cummins

Throughout the various stages of life, increasing levels of scientific and ethical attention are being directed to the consequences of medical intervention. The measures being studied are additional to the traditional indices of biological functioning and survival. Such monitoring is becoming especially important towards the end of life, where the cost of treatment ever rises in response to increasing technical sophistication. The downside to increasing longevity through such means is the burden of such treatments. What, then, is the balance between the duration of life gained and life quality? These critical contemporary questions are addressed in this compelling collection of chapters relating to End Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD), from diverse viewpoints.

Patients suffering from ESKD have to cope with many forms of adversity. Most obviously, their treatment is expensive so they bear an economic burden. The treatment is also inherently unpleasant, so they must bear the burden of pain and discomfort. Such constant feelings of malaise have knock-on consequences, such as a loss of motivation to engage in normal positive behaviors. This loss, in turn, is likely to exacerbate the severity of their condition through, for example, the loss of motivation to eat a good diet or to meet the requirements of demanding treatment regimens. But overshadowing all of these is the social cost of their condition. The disruption of normal social relationships with partner, family and friends can mean a devastating reduction in this major personal resource against adversity.

Understanding and ameliorating such negative outcomes is important for at least two reasons. One is a humanitarian concern with life quality. The other is the fact that loss of positive feelings leads to depression, which then works against the potential benefits afforded by the medical treatment. People who are despondent respond less positively to medical interventions. Moreover, without due care, their psychological condition also causes them to interact negatively with the world around them, causing an emotional downwards spiral as they lose social support and positive self-regard.

Measuring and interpreting such outcomes requires good instruments and theoretical understanding of the underlying psychological constructs. Two disciplines are intimately involved. Within medicine, such measurements are viewed within the context of health related quality of life, and many instruments have been created. Such measures constitute standardized self-reports of each patient’s symptoms, both in terms of their medical condition and psychopathology. From within psychology, established scales have been created to measure levels of depression and stress, while more recent instruments measure levels of positive wellbeing.

All such measurements contribute important information for those who must make tough decisions. Does the life quality of the patient warrant continuation of the treatment, all things considered? Such decisions are made every day in money-stretched hospitals and will become more frequent as the economic reality of extending life becomes increasingly relevant. This fine collection of chapters adds important understanding to this crucial area of human intervention.

Robert A. Cummins
School of Psychology
Deakin University
Melbourne
Australia

Foreword by Stanton Newman

This eBook is timely. It captures two crucial changes in health care. One is an increasing concern with the quality of patient experience. The other is a focus on the impact of treatments on patients with different types of conditions. For many years work on chronic health conditions concentrated on mortality, morbidity and symptom relief. This approach reflected an appropriate attempt by the medical profession to find a cure or better treatment for each condition. While this has remained an area of great effort, the systematic evaluation of medical interventions and treatments from the patients’ perspective is now seen to be of critical importance too. There is growing recognition that patients and their family members with support and advice from healthcare professionals essentially manage most chronic conditions. Patients make decisions on what is important to them and how their treatments fit in with other aspects of their lives. This includes whether they should follow all the medical advice and adhere absolutely to treatments.

In end - stage kidney disease (ESKD) the kidneys no longer function appropriately. A technique needs to be found to mimic the way they work or they need to be replaced by means of transplantation. For many patients the choice of transplantation is seen as the ideal treatment for ESKD. However, this is not always possible because of the limited number of either cadaver or living donors available to provide kidneys to the population that needs to replacement. Many patients must therefore rely on replacement therapy. The bulk of this involves some form of dialysis therapy. There are a range of different types of dialysis including haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. These treatments are delivered in either a hospital or treatment centre or in some cases at home. The regimen of dialysis treatment is extremely onerous. It places great pressure on patients to attend treatments usually a number of times a week. In addition they have to adopt a specific diet to reduce the pressure on their kidneys. Most people who have ESKD commonly have an additional chronic condition. Conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure often cause people to go into ESKD. This means that many patients with ESKD also have to follow the requirements and regimens of other conditions that are in their own way demanding.

This eBook focuses on the impact of this complex and exacting condition on patients and those that care for them. It also examines the economic impact of end - stage kidney disease and the healthcare policy implications of this disease. It provides comprehensive and thoughtful insights into the issues patients with ESKD confront. It is written by researchers with a well-rounded understanding of the characteristics and impact of ESKD. I can think of no better group to examine the consequences of ESKD on patients than the expert contributors to this eBook. For anyone involved in the treatment and management of end - stage kidney disease - professionals, patients and their families - this eBook provides essential reading.

Stanton Newman
City University London
United Kingdom


Preface

Modern societies include increasing proportions of elderly people, with a resulting increase in the incidence and duration of chronic illnesses. Similarly, advanced age is considered a significant determinant of depression and poor quality of life. Additionally, the provision of therapies relevant to chronic diseases addresses the issues beyond the concept of cure, bringing to the center the need for a dignified quality of life of patients. An increased interest in quality of life is observed in patients who suffer from chronic diseases, including those with end-stage kidney disease. End-stage kidney disease patients have a high burden of disease affecting their quality of life and dramatically shortening their life expectancy. Therefore, exploring quality of life becomes an essential task in the management of this population. This volume provides a penetrating practical discussion to date of alternative approaches for comprehensively measuring the burden of end-stage kidney disease.

Disclosure

The part of text has been taken from the article J Clin Med Res. 2011 3(3): 132–138. (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3138410/)

Paraskevi Theofilou
Sotiria Hospital for Thoracic Diseases,
Athens
Greece

&

Center for Research and Technology
Department of Kinesiology
Health & Quality of Life Research Group
Trikala
Thessaly
Greece

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Paraskevi Theofilou
&
Sotiria Hospital for Thoracic Diseases Greece
Quality of Life Research Group
Greece




Contributor(s):
Alden Y. Lai
Graduate School of Medicine
School of Public Health, University of Tokyo
Tokyo
Japan


Anne Vereerstraeten
CHU André Vésale
Montigny-Le-Tilleul
Chimay
Tunisia


Anne-Marie Bogaert
AZ Sint Elisabeth
Zottegem
Belgium


Athena Kalokairinou
Nursing Department
University of Athens
Athens
Greece


Barbara Barcaccia
Associazione di Psicologia Cognitiva
Rome
Italy


Christina Karatzaferi
Department of Kinesiology
Center for Research and Technology, Thessaly
Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly
Greece


Constantinos M. Togas
Ministry of Justice
Hellas
Greece


Cynthia Russell
University of Missouri-Kansas City
School of Nursing
USA


Georgios K. Tzitzikos
Renal Department
General Hospital of Corinth
Hellas
Greece


Giorgos K. Sakkas
Department of Kinesiology, Center for Research and Technology
Department of Physical Education and Sport Science
University of Thessaly
Thessaly
Greece


Guy Van Roost
St. Jan Hospital Brussels
Belgium


Haikel A. Lim
Department of Psychology
National University of Singapore
Singapore


Helen Panagiotaki
“A. Fleming” General Hospital of Melissia
Melissia, Athens
Greece


Josipa Radic
Department of Internal Medicine
University Hospital Center Split
University of Split School of Medicine
Split
Croatia


Karin Caekelbergh
Health Economics and Outcomes Research
IMS Health
Brussels
Belgium


Katarina Dodig Curkovic
Department of Psychiatry
University Hospital Center Osijek
University of Osijek School of Medicine
Osijek
Croatia


Koen Bouman
ZNA, Middelheim
Antwerp
Belgium


Konstadina Griva
Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences
Department of Psychology, National University of Singapore
Singapore


Maria Athanasopoulou
Nursing Department
University of Athens
Athens
Greece


Maria Malliarou
Nursing Department
University of Athens
Athens
Greece


Mario Schurgers
AZ St. Jan
Brugge
Belgium


Mark Lamotte
Health Economics and Outcomes Research
IMS Health
Brussels
Belgium


Max Dratwa
CHU Brugmann
Brussels
Belgium


Michelle L. Matteson
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
University of Missouri
USA


Mislav Radic
Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Center Split
University of Split School of Medicine
Split
Croatia


Pantelis Sarafidis
1st Medical Department
Aristotle University
Thessaloniki
Greece


Paraskevi Theofilou
Sotiria Hospital for Thoracic Diseases
Athens
Greece
/
Center for Research and Technology, Department of Kinesiology
Health & Quality of Life Research Group
Trikala
Thessaly
Greece
/
Sotiria Hospital for Thoracic Diseases
Athens
Greece


Pavlos Malindretos
Department of Nephrology, Peritoneal Dialysis Section
Achillopouleion General Hospital
Volos
Greece


Pierre Dupont
CHU Tivoli, La Louvière
Belgium


Remi Hombrouckx
AZ Zusters van Barmhartigheid
Ronse
Belgium


Sofia Zyga
Nursing Department
University of Peloponnese
Sparta
Greece


Stamatina Zili
Department of Internal Medicine
Papageorgiou General Hospital
Thessaloniki
Greece


Stefania S. Grigoriou
Department of Kinesiology, Center for Research and Technology
Department of Physical Education and Sport Science
University of Thessaly
Greece


Suzanne Laplante
EMEA Health Outcomes chez Baxter Healthcare
Baxter World Trade SA/NV
Belgium


Xavier Warling
Center Hospital Régionale Citadelle
Liège
Belgium




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