Introduction to Micro and Nanomachining Technology
- Pp. 3-48 (46)Xuesong Han
This chapter focused on the emerging global trend toward the miniaturization of manufacturing processes, equipment and systems for micro and nanoscale components and products, i.e., small equipment for small parts. The present need for smallness of parts stems mainly from two requirements: greater compactness in the utilization of space and portability. The mechanical and electrical devices that make up these items need to be produced in ever-decreasing sizes, with tightly specified dimensions and accuracies. Although these miniature devices may be machined by various techniques, their shaping through material removal constitutes a major means of production. Innovations in the area of micro and nanofabrication have created opportunity to manufacture structures at the nanometer and millimeter scales. These ultraprecision machining processes include STM based nanofabrication and abrasive machining (including lapping, polishing and honing) which can be characterized by either two body or three body abrasive interactions. There are various ways to classify precision material removal processes. We have presented one above, based on the “uncut chip thickness”. Combinations of these techniques and established methods of manufacturing that produce hybrid manufacturing processes will create the short term "stepping stones" required to meet the demand generated to economically manufacture microscale products. In this chapter, some dominant micro and nanomachining techniques that are currently used to fabricate structures in the nanometer scale up to the millimeter scale are introduced.