Advanced Numerical Methods for Complex Environmental Models: Needs and Availability


by

István Faragó, Ágnes Havasi, Zahari Zlatev

DOI: 10.2174/97816080577881130101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-778-8, 2013
ISBN: 978-1-60805-777-1



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High air pollution levels pose a significant threat to plants, animals and human beings. Efforts by researchers are directed towards ...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword by László Bozó

- Pp. i-ii (2)

László Bozó

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Foreword by Clemens Mensink

- Pp. iii-iv (2)

Clemens Mensink

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Preface

- Pp. v-vi (2)

István Faragó, Ágnes Havasi and Zahari Zlatev

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List of Contributors

- Pp. vii-ix (3)

István Faragó, Ágnes Havasi and Zahari Zlatev

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Treatment of Some Classes of PDEs and ODEs Part A: Complex Numerical Atmospheric Environmental Models - Overall Description and Applications

- Pp. 3-28 (26)

Adolf Ebel and Michael Memmesheimer

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Part B: Finite-Difference Methods for Extremely Anisotropic Diffusion

- Pp. 29-52 (24)

Bram van Es, Barry Koren and Hugo J. de Blank

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Part C: Treatment of the Chemical Reactions in an Air Pollution Model

- Pp. 53-78 (26)

István Faragó, Ágnes Havasi and Zahari Zlatev

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Introduction of Splitting Procedures Part A: Implementation of Splitting Procedures

- Pp. 79-125 (47)

István Faragó, Ágnes Havasi and Zahari Zlatev

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Part B: Application of Splitting in an Air Pollution Model

- Pp. 126-165 (40)

István Faragó, Ágnes Havasi and Zahari Zlatev

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Parallel Computations in a Large-Scale Air Pollution Model

- Pp. 166-202 (37)

Zahari Zlatev, Krassimir Georgiev and Ivan Dimov

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Handling of Some Classes of Inverse Problems Part A: Adjoint Methods and their Application in Earth Sciences

- Pp. 203-275 (73)

Tamás Práger and Fanni Dóra Kelemen

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Part B: Sensitivity Analysis in Nonlinear Variational Data Assimilation: Theoretical Aspects and Applications

- Pp. 276-300 (25)

Dacian N. Daescu and Ionel M. Navon

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Part C: Sensitivity of European Pollution Levels to Changes of Human-Made Emissions

- Pp. 301-326 (26)

Zahari Zlatev, Krassimir Georgiev and Ivan Dimov

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Studying the Air Quality and the Influence of Climate Changes on Our Environment Part A: Air Quality Modeling at Street-Scale

- Pp. 327-364 (38)

Carlos Borrego, Jorge H. Amorim, Oxana Tchepel, Ana M. Costa and Ana I. Miranda

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Part B: Operational Forecasting System to Evaluate the Impact of Industrial Sources on the Air Quality

- Pp. 365-393 (29)

Roberto San José, Juan L. Pérez and Rosa M. González

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Part C: Uncertainty Analysis of the Regional Climate Model PRECIS

- Pp. 394-415 (22)

Ildikó Pieczka, Rita Pongrácz and Judit Bartholy

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Index

- Pp. 416-424 (9)

István Faragó, Ágnes Havasi and Zahari Zlatev

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Foreword

Foreword by László Bozó

Environmental pollution, climate change, the increasing number and intensity of various extreme meteorological and hydrological events have their significant effects on socio-economic activities and the natural systems. Such a tendency could be detected during the past decades, especially for air pollution episodes with high concentrations and depositions, droughts, floods, heavy rainfalls and heat waves.

Sustainable development is one of the key issues of the next decades, including a broad horizon of human activities: e.g. energy production, transport, industrial activity, agriculture, water management, human and animal health care.

Complex environmental modeling, involving experts from the fields of mathematics, physics, chemistry and environmental sciences is needed to analyse, and, as far as possible to predict the sophisticated processes behind this issue. Once the area of environmental problems is targetted, appropriate advanced numerical methods and models are to be developed and tested in order to handle the physical, chemical, biological and even economical processes governing the complex environmental changes.

A number of highly acknowledged scientists contributed to the content of this eeBook. It covers the treatment of some classes of PDEs and ODEs, the implementation of splitting procedures, parallel and grid computations, as well as handling of some classes of inverse problems. One of the most exciting and challenging environmental problems is discussed in Chapter 5: how the climate change influences the level of environmental pollution. The scope of the model classes presented in this eBook is rather broad: it goes from large-scale air pollution model estimations down to street-scale air quality simulations. Regional climate model PRECIS presented here is applying boundary conditions computed by global scale GCMs.

It is now obvious that disciplines of the Earth Sciences can not be treated separately: this eBook shows an example how the representatives of different branches of natural sciences are able to cooperate in addressing and simulating complex environmental issues, expanding our knowledge and providing theoretical and practical support to the readers interested in this field.

László Bozó
Vice President
Hungarian Academy of Sciences’s Section of Earth Sciences
Hungary

Foreword by Clemens Mensink

Clean air is one of the Earth's natural resources vital to the survival and development of the human population. However, it is often threatened by the impacts of industrial activities, agricultural production, increasing human mobility using fossil fuels, as well as some natural phenomena (e.g. volcanic eruptions). The prospects of a growing world population, a changing climate and further urbanization will even put more pressure on clean air as a critical resource in the future.

Although sources of air pollution may be local, many of the physical and chemical processes influencing air quality take place at a much larger scale. Acidification, ozone formation, transport of particulate matter and radiation effects of nuclear disasters (e.g. Fukushima) may take place over distances of hundreds or even thousands of kilometres and a time scale of several days.

Computer models are needed to understand these processes and provide insights and predictions that may help to evaluate the actual air quality situation or build policies that scientifically underpin sustainable solutions to improve the air quality. The current state-of-the-art large scale air quality models are complex in the sense that need to mathematically couple various processes, such as transport, chemistry, turbulent diffusion, aerosol formation, deposition, etc. All these processes have their own limitations with respect to the time scales they physically consider. This makes an accurate representation of the interactions between these processes a very demanding task, both in terms of scientific understanding as well as with respect to the computer resources needed to resolve the underlying mathematical equations.

The task becomes even more demanding nowadays, since the need for more detailed information is constantly increasing, putting a pressure on the modellers to go to higher resolutions. Representing air pollution concentrations on a domain of 1 km grid resolution covering several regions or countries is more and more becoming the standard. Linking large scale air quality processes to the evaluation and prediction of air quality in cities and streets where people actually live is even a further challenge.

It is clear that a better understanding of the mathematical principles and numerical methods to make these complex models more efficient in using computational resources is a necessary but challenging task. I wish to congratulate the editors of this eBook, Zahari Zlatev, István Faragó and Ágnes Havasi, in providing these insights by collecting the relevant expert contributions of renown specialists in the field. Their contributions are based on sound expertise and experience and form a well balanced mix of theoretical insights and practical applications that go beyond state-of-the-art in environmental modeling in general and air quality modeling in particular.

Clemens Mensink
Unit Manager
Environmental Modeling
VITO, Belgium


Preface

High air pollution levels can cause damages to plants, animals and human beings. Therefore, it is necessary to keep them under some prescribed safe limits, which are established by different authorities. This is very challenging, but important for the modern society problem. Advanced mathematical models are one of the major tools, perhaps the most important one, which can be used to deal successfully with this important task. These models are normally described mathematically by systems of partial differential equations and have to be treated numerically on big modern computers.

One of the important problems arising when a large-scale air pollution model is used in different studies is the following: how to avoid the appearance of large numerical errors which interact with the errors caused by other reasons (such as errors due to the uncertainty of the input data or errors due to the uncertainties in the determinations of the rates of the involved chemical reactions)? The answer is in principle very simple: fine resolution discretization schemes are to be used. However, it is not very easy to treat successfully the model under consideration when fine grids are applied, because the computational tasks become very large and systems containing many millions of equations have to be solved during many time-steps. Furthermore, many studies of different phenomena related to air pollution require the use of many scenarios. Finally, very often long runs over many successive years have to be carried out. Therefore, one should:

  1. select good numerical methods,
  2. use some splitting procedure,
  3. implement them efficiently by trying to exploit the cache memories of the available computers and
  4. apply parallel computers.


The solution of these four tasks is handled in many of the chapters of the eBook and different devices for achieving efficiency are proposed.

After developing a good air pollution model it is necessary to demonstrate its usefulness by applying it in the treatment of different practical tasks. The application of air pollution models in the investigation of:

  1. distribution of the air pollution in different regions,
  2. long-range transport of air pollution of one area to another,
  3. sensitivity of air pollution levels to variation of human-made emissions,
  4. relations between air pollution levels and climate changes and
  5. prepare air pollution forecasts, is also discussed in many chapters of the eBook.


The above short description of the scope of the eBook shows very clearly that it can be useful for many different specialists interested in developing and application of large-scale air pollution models. Since the ideas are very general (systems of partial differential equations do appear in many fields of science and engineering), the eBook can also be used by specialists working in some related areas.

István Faragó, Ágnes Havasi
Department of Applied Analysis and Computational Mathematics and HAS
ELTE Research Group “Numerical Analysis and Large Networks”
Eötvös Loránd University
Pázmány P. s. 1/C, H-1117, Budapest
Hungary

&

Zahari Zlatev

Department of Environmental Science
Aarhus University
Roskilde
Denmark

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
István Faragó
Department of Applied Analysis and Computational Mathematics and HAS ELTE
Research Group “Numerical Analysis and Large Networks”Eötvös Loránd University
Budapest
Hungary


Ágnes Havasi
Department of Applied Analysis and Computational Mathematics and HAS ELTE
Research Group “Numerical Analysis and Large Networks” Eötvös Loránd University
Budapest
Hungary


Zahari Zlatev
Department of Environmental Science
Aarhus University
Roskilde
Denmark




Contributor(s):
Adolf Ebel
Rhenish Institute for Environmental Research at the University of Cologne
Aachener Str. 209
Cologne, 50931
Germany


Ágnes Havasi
Department of Applied Analysis and Computational Mathematics
Eötvös Loránd University
Pázmány P. s 1/C
Budapest, H-1117
Hungary


Ana I. Miranda
University of Aveiro
Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) & Department of Environment and Planning
Aveiro, 3810-193
Portugal


Ana M. Costa
University of Aveiro
Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) & Department of Environment and Planning
Aveiro, 3810-193
Portugal


Barry Koren
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science
Eindhoven University of Technology
P.O. Box 513
Eindhoven
MB, 5600
The Netherlands


Bram van Es
FOM Institute DIFFER - Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research
Edisonbaan 14
Nieuwegein
The Netherlands
/
CentrumWiskunde & Informatica
Science Park 123
Amsterdam
The Netherlands


Carlos Borrego
Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) & Department of Environment and Planning
University of Aveiro
Aveiro, 3810-193
Portugal


Dacian N. Daescu
Portland State University
P.O. Box 751
Portland
OR, 97207
USA


Fanni Dóra Kelemen
Department of Meteorology
Eötvös Loránd University
Budapest
Hungary


Hugo de Blank
FOM Institute DIFFER - Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research
Edisonbaan 14
Nieuwegein
The Netherlands


Ildikó Pieczka
Department of Meteorology
Eötvös Loránd University
Budapest
Hungary


Ionel M. Navon
Florida State University
Tallahassee
Florida
U.S.A


István Faragó
Department of Applied Analysis and Computational Mathematics
Eötvös Loránd University
Pázmány P. s. 1/C
Budapest, H-1117
Hungary


Ivan Dimov
Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
Acad. G. Bonchev str., bl. 25A
Sofia, 1113
Bulgaria


Jorge H. Amorim
CESAM & Department of Environment and Planning
University of Aveiro
Aveiro, 3810-193
Portugal


Juan L. Pérez
Environmental Software and Modeling Group, Computer Science School
Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Campus de Montegancedo
Boadilla del Monte 28660
Madrid
Spain


Judit Bartholy
Department of Meteorology
Eötvös Loránd University
Budapest
Hungary


Krassimir Georgiev
Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
Acad. G. Bonchev str., bl. 25A
Sofia, 1113
Bulgaria


Michael Memmesheimer
Rhenish Institute for Environmental Research at the University of Cologne
Aachener Str. 209
Cologne, 50931
Germany


Oxana Tchepel
Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) & Department of Environment and Planning
University of Aveiro
Aveiro, 3810-193
Portugal


Rita Pongrácz
Department of Meteorology
Eötvös Loránd University
Budapest
Hungary


Roberto San José
Environmental Software and Modeling Group, Computer Science School
Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Campus de Montegancedo
Boadilla del Monte 28660
Madrid
Spain


Rosa M. González
epartment of Meteorology and Geophysics, Faculty of Physics
Complutense University of Madrid; Ciudad Universitaria
Madrid, 28040
Spain


Tamás Práger
Department of Meteorology
Eötvös Loránd University
Budapest
Hungary


Zahari Zlatev
National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University
Frederiksborgvej 399, P. O. Box 358
Roskilde, DK-4000
Denmark




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