Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research-Anti Infectives

Volume 1

by

Atta-ur-Rahman

DOI: 10.2174/97816080585491140101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-854-9, 2014
ISBN: 978-1-60805-855-6
ISSN: 2352-3212

  
  




Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research – Anti Infectives is an eBook series that b...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

Preface, Pp. i-iii (3)

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List of Contributors, Pp. iv-ix (6)

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Anti-Infective Polypeptides for Combating Bacterial and Viral Infections, Pp. 3-31 (29)

Lena Heinbockel, Guillermo M. de Tejada, Susana Sánchez-Gómez, Yani Kaconis, Eva Krause, Wolfram Brune, Stefanie Schmeiser, Volker Moennig, Tobias Schürholz, Sabine Dömming, Mathias Hornef, Aline Dupont, Joachim Hauber, Patrick Garidel, Beate Schittl, Julie Lucifora, Thomas Gutsmann, Krepstakies Krepstakies, Ulrike Protzer and Klaus Brandenburg

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New Antimicrobial Agents Against Common Bacteria that Cause Serious Infections, Pp. 32-52 (21)

Ursula Kelly and Nancy Khardori

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Antisense Oligonucleotides-Based Therapeutics for Pathogenic Bacteria and Viruses, Pp. 53-157 (105)

Hui Bai, Yu You, Xiaochen Bo, Shengqi Wang and Xiaoxing Luo

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Anti-Infective Agents Against Flavivirus, Pp. 158-199 (42)

S. John Vennison and S. Gowri Sankar

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Plant Derived Edible Vaccines and Therapeutics, Pp. 200-236 (37)

Emrah Altindis, Sultan Gulce Iz, Mehmet Ozgun Ozen, Pinar Nartop, Ismet Deliloglu Gurhan and Aynur Gurel

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Recent Advances in the Discovery and Development of New Drugs Against Gram-Negative Pathogens, Pp. 237-262 (26)

Ashok Rattan, V. Samuel Raj and Kulvinder S. Saini

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Current Status of Antimicrobial Resistance in Enteric Bacterial Pathogens, Pp. 263-307 (45)

Yasra Sarwar, Aamir Ali, Asma Haque and Abdul Haque

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The Potential of Bacteriophage Lysins in the Treatment of Gram- Positive Bacteria Including Multidrug Resistant Bacteria, Pp. 308-337 (30)

Raymond Schuch, Vincent A. Fischetti, Hoonmo L. Koo and David B. Huang

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Index, Pp. 338-358 (21)

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Preface

The treatment of infectious diseases has come a long way since the pioneering days of Anton von Leeuwenhoek. Significant milestones were made by the discoveries of Pasteur and Kock, followed much later by the discovery of penicillin by Fleming and the development of vaccines by Jenner, Salk, and Sabin. The 20th century saw several progressive strides being taken to fight other infectious organisms, particularly with the development of several pharmaceutical agents to combat them. Anti-infective drug research has, therefore, evolved into a multidisciplinary field which involves the collaboration of medical professionals, microbiologists, pharmaceutical scientists and epidemiologists worldwide.

The first volume of Frontiers in Clinical Drug Research – Anti Infectives brings updated reviews to readers interested in recent advances in the development of pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of infectious diseases. The chapters in this volume of the eBook series are written by leading experts in their respective fields. There are several topics relevant to this field in this introductory volume covering antibiotics, vaccines, drug resistance and more.

In the first chapter of this volume, Brandenburg et al. present their findings on a new class of polypeptide antibiotics against bacterial and viral infections. These researchers have discovered a set of polypeptide compounds which exhibit broad spectrum activity against bacterial pathogenic factors such as lipopolysaccharide and endotoxin. This effort is important in the discovery of novel compounds to target bacterial infections. These infections already pose a serious threat to human health, which is further increased by the incidence of bacterial resistance to existing drugs.

Next, in chapter 2, Kelly and Khardori provide a brief review on antimicrobial agents and highlight new mechanisms of actions that have been discovered in recent years. This chapter briefly covers the history of anti-microbial drug discovery and highlights new drugs including streptogramins, lipoglycopeptides, and fluoroquinolones.

Luo et al. discuss antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) based drugs against bacteria and viruses in chapter 3. This is a comprehensive review which provides a wealth of information on ASO technology, targeted organisms and host factors, and mechanisms of ASO action. The authors have also cited new drugs which are undergoing clinical trials.

In chapter 4, Vennison and Sankar have reviewed the major vaccines currently available against flaviviruses and new approaches utilized for designing novel vaccine candidates and antiviral agents targeting various pathways in the flavivirus life-cycle. The article also lists molecules that inhibit flavivirus functions and includes several useful illustrations for readers.

In chapter 5, Altindis and coworkers present a summary of the progress made on plants used for edible vaccine research. Edible vaccines can prove to be a novel and economic therapeutic solution to treat infectious diseases.

In Chapter 6, Saini et al., review the recentprogress made in the field of antibiotics against gram negative bacteria. This chapter provides information on antibiotic agents used to fight infections caused by specific bacterial species such as K. pneumoniae, E. coli and H. influenza. They address concerns about MRSA and VRSA strains of S. aureus as well as the requirements of future R&D efforts to develop new drugs.

Chapter 7 is a summary of the current developments against enteric pathogens. Haque and colleagues bring together information on the properties of these pathogens, the antimicrobials currently in use and the mechanisms of drug resistance shown by these bacteria.

Finally, Huang et al. provide an interesting review of the use of bacteriophages against gram positive bacteria over the last 20 years. The authors of this chapter hint at new mechanisms to tackle clinically significant microorganisms including multidrug resistant strains. They demonstrate the bacteriophage therapy is a novel way to address the growing problem of hospital acquired infections.

I hope that readers will find value in this collection of reviews and draw inspiration for conducting further drug discovery research in the field of anti-infective drug research.

I am grateful for the timely efforts made by the editorial personnel, especially Mr. Mahmood Alam (Director Publications), Ms. Maria Baig (Manager Publications) and Mr. Taimur at Bentham Science Publishers for their assistance.

Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS
Kings College
University of Cambridge
Cambridge
UK

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Atta-ur-Rahman FRS
Kings College
University of Cambridge
Cambridge
UK




Contributor(s):
Aamir Ali
Human Enteric Pathogens Group
Health Biotechnology Division
National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
Faisalabad
Pakistan


Abdul Haque
Human Enteric Pathogens Group
Health Biotechnology Division
National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
Faisalabad
Pakistan


Aline Dupont
Medizinische Hochschule Hannover
Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1
Hannover, D-30625
Germany


Ashok Rattan
Department of Laboratory Medicine
Medanta-The Medicity
Sector-38
Gurgaon
Haryana, 122 001
India


Asma Haque
Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology
GC University
Faisalabad
Pakistan


Aynur Gurel
Department of Bioengineering
Ege University, Faculty of Engineering
Izmir
Bornova, 35100
Turkey


Beate Schittl
Technische Universität München / Helmholtz Zentrum München
Institut für Virologie
Trogerstrasse 30
München, 81675
Germany


David B. Huang
ContraFect Corporation
28 Wells Avenue, Third Floor
Yonkers
New York
USA


Emrah Altindis
Harvard Medical School
Microbiology and Immunobiology Department
200 Longwood Avenue
Boston
MA, 02115
USA


Eva Krause
Heinrich-Pette-Institut
Leibniz-Institut für Experimentelle Virologie
Martinistr. 52
Hamburg, 20251
Germany


Guillermo M. de Tejada
Department of Microbiology
Universidad de Navarra
Irunlarrea 1, E-31008
Pamplona
Spain


Hoonmo L. Koo
Baylor College of Medicine
USA


Hui Bai
Department of Biotechnology
Institute of Radiation Medicine
Academy of Military, Medical Sciences
Beijing, 100850
China


Ismet Deliloglu Gurhan
Department of Bioengineering
Ege University, Faculty of Engineering
Izmir
Bornova, 35100
Turkey


Joachim Hauber
Heinrich-Pette-Institut
Leibniz-Institut für Experimentelle Virologie
Martinistr. 52
Hamburg, 20251
Germany


Julie Lucifora
Technische Universität München / Helmholtz Zentrum München
Institut für Virologie
Trogerstrasse 30
München, 81675
Germany


Kulvinder S. Saini
Research & Development
Eternal University
Baru Sahib-173 101
King Abdulaziz University
Jeddah
Himachal Pradesh, 21589
India


Klaus Brandenburg
Forschungszentrum Borstel
Division of Biophysics
Parkallee 10
Borstel, D-23845
Germany


Lena Heinbockel
Forschungszentrum Borstel
Division of Biophysics
Parkallee 10
Borstel, D-23845
Germany


Marcel Krepstakies
Heinrich-Pette-Institut
Leibniz-Institut für Experimentelle Virologie
Martinistr. 52
Hamburg, 20251
Germany


Mathias Hornef
Medizinische Hochschule Hannover
Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1
Hannover, D-30625
Germany


Mehmet Ozgun Ozen
Department of Bioengineering
Ege University, Faculty of Engineering
Izmir
Bornova, 35100
Turkey


Nancy Khardori
Division of Infectious Disease
Department of Internal Medicine
Eastern Virginia, Medical School
Norfolk
Virginia
USA


Patrick Garidel
Martin-Luther- Universität Halle-Wittenberg
von-Danckelmann-Platz 4
Halle, D- 06120
Germany


Pinar Nartop
Department of Bioengineering
Ege University, Faculty of Engineering
Izmir
Bornova, 35100
Turkey


Raymond Schuch
ContraFect Corporation
28 Wells Avenue, Third Floor
Yonkers
New York
USA


S. Gowri Sankar
Department of Biotechnology
Anna University-BIT Campus
Tiruchirappalli-620 024
Tamil Nadu
India


S. John Vennison
Department of Biotechnology
Anna University-BIT Campus
Tiruchirappalli-620 024
Tamil Nadu
India


Sabine Dömming
Department of Intensive Care
Universitätsklinikum Aachen
Pauwelsstr. 30
Aachen, D- 52074
Germany


Shengqi Wang
Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine
the Academy of Military Medical Sciences
Beijing
China


Stefanie Schmeiser
Institut für Virologie
Stiftung Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover
Buenteweg 17
Hannover, 30559
Germany


Sultan Gulce Iz
Department of Bioengineering
Ege University, Faculty of Engineering
Izmir
Bornova, 35100
Turkey


Susana Sánchez-Gómez
Department of Microbiology
Universidad de Navarra
Irunlarrea 1
Pamplona, E-31008
Spain


Thomas Gutsmann
Forschungszentrum Borstel
Division of Biophysics
Parkallee 10
Borstel, D-23845
Germany


Tobias Schürholz
Universitätsklinikum Aachen
Department of Intensive Care
Pauwelsstr. 30
Aachen, D- 52074
Germany


Ulrike Protzer
Technische Universität München / Helmholtz Zentrum München
Institut für Virologie
Trogerstrasse 30
München, 81675
Germany


Ursula Kelly
Division of Infectious Disease
Department of Internal Medicine
Eastern Virginia, Medical School
Norfolk
Virginia
USA


V. Samuel Raj
Department of Microbiology
Daiichi-Sankyo India Pharma Pvt. Ltd. (DSIN)
Sector-18, Udyog Vihar Industrial Area
Gurgaon
Haryana, 122 015
India


Vincent A. Fischetti
Laboratory of Bacterial Pathogenesis
The Rockefeller University
USA


Volker Moennig
Institut für Virologie
Stiftung Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover
Buenteweg 17
Hannover, 30559
Germany


Wolfram Brune
Heinrich-Pette-Institut
Leibniz-Institut für Experimentelle Virologie
Martinistr. 52
Hamburg, 20251
Germany


Xiaochen Bo
Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine
the Academy of Military Medical Sciences
Beijing
China


Xiaoxing Luo
Department of Pharmacology
School of Pharmacy
Fourth Military Medical University
Xi’an
China


Yani Kaconis
Forschungszentrum Borstel
Division of Biophysics
Parkallee 10
Borstel, D-23845
Germany


Yasra Sarwar
Human Enteric Pathogens Group
Health Biotechnology Division
National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
Faisalabad
Pakistan


Yu You
The Military General Hospital of Beijing
Beijing, 100700
China




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