The Design, Synthetic Strategies and Biocompatibility of Polymer Scaffolds for Biomedical Application

Book Series: Frontiers in Biomaterials

Volume 1

by

Shunsheng Cao

DOI: 10.2174/97816080587611140101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-876-1, 2014
ISBN: 978-1-60805-877-8
ISSN: 2468-0168 (Print)



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Frontiers in Biomaterials: The Design, Synthetic Strategies and Biocompatibility of Polymer Scaffolds for Biomedical Application, Volu...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i-iv (4)

J. Paul Santerre

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Preface

- Pp. vi

Shunsheng Cao and Huijun Zhu

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List of Contributors

- Pp. vii-x (4)

Shunsheng Cao and Huijun Zhu

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Control Over Cell-Scaffold Interactions in Three Dimensions

- Pp. 3-30 (28)

Zhe Li and Xiaohua Liu

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Biomaterials - From Engineered Scaffolds to Potential Synthetic Organs: A Review

- Pp. 31-69 (39)

Ipsita A. Banerjee and Princess U. Chukwuneke

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Nanocrystalline Diamond Films for Biomedical Applications

- Pp. 70-100 (31)

Cristian Pablo Pennisi and María Alcaide

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Bioceramics-Design, Synthesis and Biological Applications

- Pp. 101-128 (28)

A.C. Jayalekshmi and Chandra P. Sharma

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Role of Scaffolds in Dentistry - From Conventional to Modern Innovative Biomaterials

- Pp. 129-154 (26)

M. Mozafari, M. Jafarkhani, A.M. Urbanska, H.H Caicedo and S. Shahrabi Farahani

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Polyester Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine

- Pp. 155-197 (43)

Diana-Elena Mogosanu, Elena-Diana Giol, Mieke Vandenhaute, Diana-Maria Dragusin, Sangram Keshari Samal and Peter Dubruel

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Crosslinked Electrospun Mats Made of Natural Polymers: Potential Applications for Tissue Engineering

- Pp. 198-219 (22)

Silvia Baiguera, Costantino Del Gaudio, Alessandra Bianco and Paolo Macchiarini

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Nanomaterials for Skin Regeneration

- Pp. 220-240 (21)

Huijun Zhu, Claudia Moia and Patrick Vilela

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Electrospinning: A Versatile Technique for Fabrication and Surface Modification of Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications

- Pp. 241-273 (33)

Hem Raj Pant and Cheol Sang Kim

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Biocompatibility Issues of Organic and Inorganic Nanomaterials

- Pp. 274-304 (31)

Akhilesh Rai, Sandra Pinto, Cristiana Paulo, Michela Comune and Lino Ferreira

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Silica-Based Scaffolds: Fabrication, Synthesis and Properties

- Pp. 305-324 (20)

Juanrong Chen, Long Fang, Ying Zhang, Huijun Zhu and Shunsheng Cao

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Index

- Pp. 325-341 (17)

Shunsheng Cao and Huijun Zhu

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Foreword

The area of medical services and products currently contributes to in access of 10% of the gross domestic product for many countries in the world, and implantable biomaterial related devices make up a significant growth area within this sector of the economy. This will continue to represent a phenomenal financial and social impact for any technology focused society over the next couple of decades, as diseases of the aging continue to dominate healthcare and life expectancy increases. Fueling this drive is the need for more efficient and cheaper medical technologies since healthcare provision is reaching an unsustainable level in most jurisdictions. US demand alone for implantable medical devices is anticipated to increase by 8.3 percent annually into 2014, driving an excess of $33 billion US annually into the implantable medical device market alone. Gains will be further driven over the next decade by the development of next generation devices based on new innovative technologies and improved biomaterials. Spinal implants, cardiac stents and orthobiologics will be among the fastest growing product categories, with new biomaterials related to microelectronics, specialty metals, polymers, and elastomers becoming transformational material areas to enable targeted technologies for orthopedic, cardiac, neurological, ophthalmic, breast, drug, urological, cochlear, and dermal applications.

Specifically, the implantable medical device industry is poised to be a significant contributor to these dynamic changes. For example, it anticipated that the world will see the quality of life improve for this aging society with implantable monitoring systems, functional electrical stimulation, and well controlled targeted drug delivery technologies, facilitated by nano-technologies. These approaches provide the capacity to be pro-active in the maintenance of a healthy state rather than only reactive and intervening when illness is at an end-stage. It is anticipated that medical device technologies will become able to better manage biofilm related infections which is still waiting for a technology disruption. The tremendous advances in systems biology (i.e. omics technologies), tissue engineering and more broadly regenerative medicine are being integrated within biomedical engineering at a phenomenal pace and will make available replacement tissue for diseased vascular, and both hard and soft tissue loss from cancer surgery or other injuries. What was futuristic in 1995 with vascular graft replacement is now anticipated by 2020. Replacement of coronary and peripheral arteries and veins grown with the patient’s own cells are entirely conceivable. There have already been regenerated skin products introduced to the market and we are approaching reproducible technologies in the area of bone tissue engineering products thanks to advances in biomaterials and our understanding of molecular biology.

Given the impact that biomaterials will play in medical device development over the coming decade, the timing of this new eBook "Frontiers in Biomaterials: The Design, Synthetic Strategies and Biocompatibility of Polymer Scaffolds for Biomedical Applicatlicion" is very relevant to the key topics of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, biodegradable polymers and their processing, nanotechnology advances and related toxicity challenges, combination drug/devices, surface heterogeneity and its chemical function distribution, and biomimetic chemistry. The frontier knowledge on these topics is conveyed by an experienced group of international scholars that describe the fundamental underpinnings of these emerging areas and open the reader’s vision towards the possibilities of the future. Chapters 1 and 2 by professors Xiaohua (expertise in the areas of injectable scaffold materials and the manipulation of cell-tissue matrix interactions through drug delivery strategies), and Banerjee (research focused on molecular self-assembly and supra-molecular nanostructures applied to tissue regeneration, drug delivery, tumor cell targeting, bio-imaging, antibacterial materials, and enzyme catalysis) provide an excellent assessment of the current frontiers in scaffold manufacturing for tissue engineering applications, and describe the advances that are on-going with respect to the field’s understanding of cellular and biomaterials interactions at the molecular and 3- dimentional tissue construct levels.

The specific areas of tissue engineering applications for biomaterials in Dentistry (Chapter 5 by Dr. Mozafari) and skin (Chapter 8 by Dr. Zhu), and the expansive application of polyesters in the broader field of tissue engineering (Chapter 6 by Dr. Dubruel) are all accentuated and elaborated on in the respective chapters, from the authors’ proliferative experience in the areas of polymers and ceramics and their applications with stem cells, and within the emerging sector of biosensors for regenerative medicine and molecular recognition work. The materials processing of biomaterials, into the form of elaborate and organized nanostructures, is proving to be a valuable strategy for enhancing and manipulating the bioreactivity of materials, and much research activity on this related topic is progressing thanks to the en-roads being made with electro-spinning concepts. The area of electro-spun polymers and related composites is covered in Chapter 7 (by Dr. Baiguera) and Chapter 9 (Dr. Hem Raj Pant) and provides readers with informative and brilliant new perspectives on these nano-fibre constructs. Chapter 10 (Dr. Lino Ferreira, specializes in biomaterials and their influence on stem cell differentiation for tissue engineering applications), Chapter 11 (Dr. Shunsheng Cao, expertise focus is primarily on the design of functional biomaterials with particular attention on silica-based materials), and Chapter 4 (Dr. Sharma, whose work experience covers more than four decades of research in the area of biomaterials and biocompatibility assessment) provide an expansive look at the area of inorganic biomaterials and their contributions to emerging and innovative fields ranging from the regeneration of bone to the assessment of nano-particle toxicology, and from non-fouling surfaces to drug delivery carriers and antimicrobial materials. Chapter 3 (Dr. Pennisi, expertise is concentrated on novel materials for biosensor interfaces and their applications to tissue engineering) is particularly intriguing as it describes novel inorganic material development and their expanding applications into the micro- and nano-electronics areas, a particular topic which is starting to garner much attention for its relevance in biosensor design. Here, the exciting possibilities for the area of implantable sensors will be facilitated in the future by both nano-biomaterials and their integration with molecular biology. Accentuating the excitement in the area of the implantable electronic sensor field, is the fact that the world market for microelectronic implants in health care, accessories and supplies, was reported to be worth approximately US$15.4 billion in 2010. That market is projected to grow to US$24.8 billion in 2016. According to BCC Research, an international market research group with activity in the medical devices and biomaterials sectors, the fastest-growing segments of the sensor market are ear implants with a projected compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 18.2%, neurostimulators (10.5%) and implantable drug pumps (10.5%).

It is hoped that the readers will be motivated to embrace the exciting vision that the authors of the different chapters have shared with us in this eBook, as they represent some of the most exciting frontiers in the biomaterials field and point to much future work that still needs to be led by innovative scientists and engineers in the biomedical field.

J. Paul Santerre
Faculty of Dentistry
University of Toronto
Edward St, Room 464D
Toronto
Ontario, M5G 1G6
Canada
E-mail: paul.santerre@utoronto.ca


Preface

Biomaterials are involved in almost everything that interacts with biological system. They can be either a living structure or a biomedical device that performs, evaluates, treats, augments, or replaces any tissue, organ or function of the body. The need for the development of biomaterials as scaffold for tissue regeneration is driven by the increasing demands for materials that mimic functions of extracellular matrices of body tissues. Significant progress has been made over the past decade in improving the biological and mechanical performance, biocompatibility and degradability of scaffold materials by adopting novel strategies, such as bio-nanotechnology, protein engineering and bionanofabrication. Despite all the endeavors, it has proved challenging to achieve a simple, predictable and cost-effective design for biocompatible scaffold materials. A large body of knowledge in biomaterials is now available. Unfortunately, apart from sporadic papers, no books have yet been published to assess methodologies involved in biomaterial design, synthesis and their impaction the biocompatibility of biomaterials. With contributions from a group of frontier researchers with their expertise ranged from biomaterial synthesis and functionality, to preclinical and clinical research in tissue regeneration, this eBook is the first of the kind that capitalizes the state of the art design strategies for biocompatible scaffold materials. In particular, this eBook discusses some of the latest work that demonstrated challenges on the biocompatibility of scaffold over time after implantation, and addresses the need of new technologies and strategies to develop materials with long-lasting biocompatibility and scaffold function. The eBook is composed of 11 Chapters with 3 distinctive focus areas. It begins with overview on current understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of biomaterial-biological system interaction (Chapter 1, and 2), followed by Chapter 3 to 5 focusing on scaffold design and fabrication. Chapter 6 to 11 presents cases involving application of different biomaterials in tissue regeneration. Without doubt; the publication of such a eBook will potentially draw social and commercial interest in advancement of scaffold materials for improvement of human health.

Shunsheng Cao
School of Materials Science and Engineering
Jiangsu University
Zhenjiang, 212013
P.R. China

Huijun Zhu
Cranfield Health, Cranfield University
Bedfordshire
MK43 0AL
UK

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Shunsheng Cao
School of Materials Science & Engineering
Jiangsu University
Zhenjiang
China




Co-Editor(s):
Huijun Zhu
Cranfield Health
Cranfield University
Cranfield
Bedfordshire
UK




Contributor(s):
Xiaohua Liu
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Center for Craniofacial Research and Diagnosis
Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry
Dallas, TX 75246
Istanbul
USA


Zhe Li
Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery
Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University
Chongqing, 400038
P.R. China
/
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Center for Craniofacial Research and Diagnosis
Texas A&M University
Baylor College of Dentistry
Dallas
TX 75246
USA


Akhilesh Rai
Biocant
Biotechnology Innovation Center
3060-197 Cantanhede
Portugal


Sandra Pinto
CNC-Center for Neurosciences and Cell Biology
University of Coimbra
3004-517 Coimbra
Portugal
/
Biocant
Biotechnology Innovation Center
3060-197 Cantanhede
Portugal


Cristiana Paulo
Matera, Biocant
Biotechnology Innovation Center
3060-197 Cantanhede
Portugal


Michela Comune
CNC-Center for Neurosciences and Cell Biology
University of Coimbra
3004-517 Coimbra
Portugal
/
Biocant
Biotechnology Innovation Center
3060-197 Cantanhede
Portugal


Lino Ferreira
CNC-Center for Neurosciences and Cell Biology
University of Coimbra
3004-517 Coimbra
Portugal
/
Biocant
Biotechnology Innovation Center
3060-197 Cantanhede
Portugal


Cristian Pablo Pennisi
Department of Health Science and Technology
Aalborg University
Aalborg
Denmark


María Alcaide
Department of Health Science and Technology
Aalborg University
Aalborg
Denmark


Hem Raj Pant
Department of Engineering Science and Humanities
Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University
Kathmandu
Nepal
/
Bio-nano System Engineering Department
Chonbuk National University
Jeonju 561-756
Republic of Korea


Cheol Sang Kim
Bio-nano System Engineering Department
Chonbuk National University
Jeonju 561-756
Republic of Korea


Ipsita A. Banerjee
Department of Chemistry
Fordham University 441 East Fordham Road
Bronx
New York 10458
USA


Princess U. Chukwuneke
Department of Chemistry
Fordham University 441 East Fordham Road
Bronx
New York 10458
USA
/
Cranfield Health
Bedfordshire
MK43 0AL
UK


Fang Long
School of Materials Science and Engineering
Jiangsu University
Zhenjiang, 212013
P. R. China


Ying Zhang
School of Materials Science and Engineering
Jiangsu University
Zhenjiang, 212013
P. R. China


Huijun Zhu
Cranfield Health
Cranfield University
Bedfordshire
UK


Shunsheng Cao
School of Materials Science and Engineering
Jiangsu University
Zhenjiang, 212013
P. R. China
/
Cranfield Health
Cranfield University
Bedfordshire
UK


Diana-Elena Mogosanu
Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials Research Group
Ghent University
Krijgslaan 281 S4bis
Ghent 9000
Belgium
/
Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST)
Ghent University – IMEC
Technologiepark - Building 914-A
Gent-Zwijnaarde 9052
Belgium


Elena-Diana Giol
Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials Research Group
Ghent University
Krijgslaan 281 S4bis
Ghent 9000
Belgium


Mieke Vandenhaute
Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials Research Group
Ghent University
Krijgslaan 281 S4bis
Ghent 9000
Belgium


Diana-Maria Dragusin
Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials Research Group
Ghent University
Krijgslaan 281 S4bis
Ghent 9000
Belgium


Sangram Keshari Samal
Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials Research Group
Ghent University
Krijgslaan 281 S4bis
Ghent 9000
Belgium


Peter Dubruel
Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials Research Group
Ghent University
Krijgslaan 281 S4bis
Ghent 9000
Belgium


Masoud Mozafari
Biomaterials Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence)
Amirkabir University of Technology
P.O. Box: 15875-4413
Tehran
Iran
/
Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center
School of Material Scienceand Engineering
Oklahoma State University
OK 74106
USA


Mahboubeh Jafarkhani
Department of Chemical Engineering,Faculty of Engineering
University of Arak
Arak, P.O. Box: 38156-875
Iran


Claudia Moia
Cranfield Health
Cranfield University
Bedfordshire
UK


Patrick Vilela
Cranfield Health
Cranfield University
Bedfordshire
UK


A.C. Jayalekshmi
Division of Biosurface Technology
Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Science and Technology
Poojappura
Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram 695012
India


Chandra P. Sharma
Division of Biosurface Technology
Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Science and Technology
Poojappura
Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram 695012
India


Silvia Baiguera
BIOAIRlab
University Hospital Careggi
Florence
Italy


Costantino Del Gaudio
University of Rome “Tor Vergata”
Department of Industrial Engineering
Intrauniversitary Consortium for Material Science and Technology (INSTM)
Research Unit Tor Vergata
Rome
Italy


Alessandra Bianco
University of Rome “Tor Vergata”
Department of Industrial Engineering
Intrauniversitary Consortium for Material Science and Technology (INSTM)
Research Unit Tor Vergata
Rome
Italy


Paolo Macchirini
Advanced Center for Translational Regenerative Medicine (ACTREM)
Karolinska Institutet
Stockholm
Sweden




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