Frontiers in Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery

Volume 3

by

Atta-ur-Rahman, M. Iqbal Choudhary

DOI: 10.2174/97816080588461140301
eISBN: 978-1-60805-884-6, 2014
ISBN: 978-1-60805-885-3
ISSN: 1879-6656 (Print)



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Indexed in: Scopus, EMBASE

Frontiers in Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery is an Ebook series devoted to publishin...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Preface

- Pp. i-ii (2)

Atta-ur-Rahman and M. Iqbal Choudhary

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iii-vi (4)

Atta-ur-Rahman and M. Iqbal Choudhary

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Innovative Therapeutics Targeting Topoisomerases in Cancer

- Pp. 3-31 (29)

Ahmad Raza, Ryan Etchison, Blake A. Jacobson and Robert A. Kratzke

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Janus Kinase 2 and Transforming Growth Factor Beta Signal Transduction Targeted Therapies in BCR/ABL-Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

- Pp. 32-108 (77)

Vladan P. Čokić and Juan F. Santibáñez

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Targeted Anti-Cancer Therapy, Acquiring and Overcoming Multi-Drug Resistance

- Pp. 109-150 (42)

Milica Pesic, Jasna Bankovic and Nikola Tanic

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Understanding Tumor Metabolism and its Potential as a Target for the Treatment of Cancer

- Pp. 151-190 (40)

Ana Carolina Santos de Souza, Alexandre Donizeti Martins Cavagis, Carmen Veríssima Ferreira and Giselle Zenker Justo

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Nitric Oxide as an Adjuvant Therapeutic in the Clinical Management of Cancer

- Pp. 191-200 (10)

Nicole J. Kenote, Tysha N. Medeiros, Dana M. Jarigese, Melissa A. Edwards and Mark A. Brown

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Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Various Types of Cancers

- Pp. 201-232 (32)

Sanath Kumar and Mira M. Shah

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Novel Strategies in the Drug Delivery Development of Anticancer Drugs: The Nanoparticulate Formulations

- Pp. 233-261 (29)

Deepak Yadav, Mohammad F. Anwar, Suruchi Suri, Hemant Kardum, Manju Belwal, Sunanda Singh, Veena Garg and Mohd Asif

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Theranostic Metallic Nanomedicine in Oncology: New Insights and Concerns

- Pp. 262-291 (30)

Sohail Akhter, Farshad Ramazani, Mohammad Zaki Ahmad, Javed Ahmad, Iqbal Ahmad, Ziyaur Rahman, Saima Amin and Farhan Jalees Ahmad

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Index

- Pp. 292-316 (25)

Atta-ur-Rahman and M. Iqbal Choudhary

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Preface

Cancer is the leading cause of death and an enduring threat to human well being. No other disease has received so much of scientific and societal attention as cancers over the last several decades. However, effective treatment to various forms of cancer is still much sought for. It is therefore imperative to gain knowledge and develop a deeper understanding about the causes of cancer, and the appropriate interventions to prevent and manage the disease. It is necessary to develop scientific strategies for cancer prevention and control, and to disseminate existing knowledge to assist the development of evidence-based approaches towards cancer diagnosis and treatment.

Volume 3 of the eBook series “Frontiers in Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery” is a compilation of eight excellent reviews on various, approaches, concerns and issues related to cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

Understanding carcinogenesis at the molecular level is possible by employing modern molecular biological techniques. The review contributed by Raza et al. describes the role of topoisomerase inhibitors in cancer treatment. DNA Topoisomerases are important targets in the development of cancer therapeutics. Inhibitors of topoisomerases cause DNA strand breakages that can ultimately lead to cancer cell death. The authors have also reviewed various classes of inhibitors including catalytic and dual inhibitors with fewer side effects.

Chapter 2, contributed by Vladan P. Čokić and Juan F. Santibáñez, discusses new approaches to the understanding of molecular pathomechanism of myeloprolife- rative neoplasms (MPNs), new innovative JAK (Janus kinase 2) inhibiting drugs and potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of BCR/ABL-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. This review highlights the role of TGF-β, JAK2 and others factors that is a challenge to exploit the combinatory therapeutic targets for future treatment of MPNs.

Drug resistance in cancerous cells is a key challenge in the treatment of cancer. Chapter 3 by Pesic et al. highlights the importance of ABCB1 therapy as an important step in cancer treatment. The ABCB1 is over-expressed in multi-drug resistance cells mainly due to its remarkable spectrum of substrates. This review also presents an overview of new anti-cancer therapeutic strategies and discusses their benefits and limitations.

Chapter 4 by de Souza et al. describes the cancer cell metabolism in great detail. This review also compares the functions and regulation of cancer cells with those of non-cancerous cells. They also discuss the challenges and prospects of targeting cancer cell metabolism for cancer treatment.

The resistance of tumors to cytotoxic treatments has been a major barrier in the chemotherapeutic management of cancer. In view of the involvement of nitric oxide in anticancer mechanism, Kenote et al. in chapter 5 discuss its role as a potential adjuvant therapeutic in cancer therapy.

There are many genetic and molecular factors underlying carcinogenesis and that can potentially serve as targets for therapeutic interventions. In chapter 6, Kumar and Shah focus on the key molecular mechanisms for various types of human cancers such as lung cancer, genitourinary cancer, breast cancer, gynecological cancer, gastrointestinal tumors, etc.

Nanotechnology is the science which can be employed for manipulating substances at the cellular and molecular levels. This technology is being applied to stimulate the research in cancer biology that could lead to early diagnosis and enhanced clinical management. Considering the importance of nanotechnology in cancer Yadav et al. in chapter 7 summarize the appropriate drug delivery systems that deliver the chemotherapeutic agents to cancerous tissues without harming non-cancerous tissues.

Last but not the least, Akhter et al. in chapter 8 describes the role of theranostic metallic nanomedicines as chemotherapeutic agents for cancer treatment.

This delightful feast of well written scientific articles on a topics of general relevance makes this eBook a “must to read” for practitioners, scientists, and students. We must thank the contributing scholars for making this volume an important treatise of scientific knowledge. We are also profoundly grateful to the editorial staff, particularly Mr. Mahmood Alam (Director Publication) and Ms. Fariya Zulfiqar (Assistant Manager) for their hard work and persistent efforts.

Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman,
FRS Honorary Life Fellow Kings College
University of Cambridge
UK

Prof. M. Iqbal Choudhary
H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry
International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences
University of Karachi
Pakistan

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Atta-ur-Rahman
Kings College University of Cambridge
Cambridge
UK


M. Iqbal Choudhary
H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry University of Karachi
Karachi, 75270
Pakistan




Contributor(s):
Ahmad Raza
University of Minnesota Medical School, Division of Hematology
Oncology and Transplantation, University of Minnesota
Minneapolis
MN, 55414
USA


Alexandre Donizeti Martins Cavagis
Departamento de Física, Química e Matemática (DFQM)
Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar)
campus Sorocaba, Rodovia João Leme dos Santos, km 110, 18.052-780
Sorocaba
SP
Brazil


Ana Carolina Santos de Souza
Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas
Universidade Federal do ABC
Rua Santa Adélia, 166, 09.210-170
Santo André
SP
Brazil


Blake A. Jacobson
University of Minnesota Medical School, Division of Hematology
Oncology and Transplantation, University of Minnesota
Minneapolis
MN, 55414
USA


Carmen Veríssima Ferreira
Laboratório de Bioensaios e Transdução de Sinal, Departamento de Bioquímica
Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP)
13.083- 862
Campinas
SP
Brazil


Dana M. Jarigese
Department of Animal Sciences
Colorado State University
Fort Collins
CO
USA


Deepak Yadav
Department of Ilmul-Advia (Pharmacology)
Faculty of Medicine, Jamia Hamdard
New Delhi, 110062
India


Farhan Jalees Ahmad
Nanomedicine Research Lab, Department of Pharmaceutics
Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard
New Delhi, 110062
India


Farshad Ramazani
Department of Pharmaceutics, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Utrecht University
Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG
Utrecht
The Netherlands


Giselle Zenker Justo
Departamento de Ciências Biológicas (campus Diadema) and Departamento de Bioquímica (campus São Paulo)
Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP)
Rua 3 de maio, 100, 04.044-020
São Paulo
SP
Brazil


Hemant Kardum
Department of Botany
Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard
New Delhi, 110062
India


Iqbal Ahmad
Nanomedicine Research Lab, Department of Pharmaceutics
Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard
New Delhi, 110062
India


Jasna Bankovic
Institute for Biological Research “Sinisa Stankovic”
University of Belgrade
Belgrade
Serbia


Javed Ahmad
Nanomedicine Research Lab, Department of Pharmaceutics
Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard
New Delhi, 110062
India


Juan F. Santibáñez
Laboratory for Experimental Hematology
Institute for Medical Research, University of Belgrade
Belgrade
Serbia


Manju Belwal
Department of Pharmaceutics
B. S. Anangpuria Institute of Pharmacy
Faridabad
India


Mark A. Brown
Cell and Molecular Biology Program
Colorado State University
Fort Collins
CO
USA
/
Department of Clinical Sciences
Colorado State University
Fort Collins
CO
USA
/
Department of Ethnic Studies
Colorado State University
Fort Collins
CO
USA
/
Colorado School of Public Health
Fort Collins
CO
USA


Melissa A. Edwards
Cell and Molecular Biology Program
Colorado State University
Fort Collins
CO
USA


Milica Pesic
Institute for Biological Research “Sinisa Stankovic”
University of Belgrade
Belgrade
Serbia


Mira M. Shah
Department of Radiation Oncology
Henry Ford Hospital
Detroit
MI, 48202
USA


Mohammad F. Anwar
Department of Chemistry
Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard
New Delhi, 110062
India


Mohammad Zaki Ahmad
Department of Pharmaceutics
College of Pharmacy, Najran University
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia


Mohd Asif
Department of Ilmul-Advia (Pharmacology)
Faculty of Medicine, Jamia Hamdard
New Delhi, 110062
India


Nicole J. Kenote
Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences
Colorado State University
Fort Collins
CO
USA


Nikola Tanic
Institute for Biological Research “Sinisa Stankovic”
University of Belgrade
Belgrade
Serbia


Robert A. Kratzke
University of Minnesota Medical School, Division of Hematology
Oncology and Transplantation, University of Minnesota
Minneapolis
MN, 55414
USA


Ryan Etchison
University of Minnesota Medical School, Division of Hematology
Oncology and Transplantation, University of Minnesota
Minneapolis
MN, 55414
USA


Saima Amin
Nanomedicine Research Lab, Department of Pharmaceutics
Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard
New Delhi, 110062
India


Sanath Kumar
Department of Radiation Oncology
Henry Ford Hospital
Detroit
MI, 48202
USA


Sohail Akhter
Department of Pharmaceutics, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Utrecht University
Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG
Utrecht
The Netherlands
/
Nanomedicine Research Lab, Department of Pharmaceutics
Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard
New Delhi
110062
India


Sunanda Singh
Department of Biotechnology
Banasthali University, Banasthali
Rajasthan
India


Suruchi Suri
Department of Chemistry
Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard
New Delhi, 110062
India


Tysha N. Medeiros
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Colorado State University
Fort Collins
CO
USA


Veena Garg
Department of Biotechnology
Banasthali University, Banasthali
Rajasthan
India


Vladan P. Čokić
Laboratory for Experimental Hematology
Institute for Medical Research, University of Belgrade
Belgrade
Serbia


Ziyaur Rahman
Irma Lerma Rangel College of Pharmacy
Texas A&M Health Science Center
Kingsville
Texas
USA




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