Frontiers in Anti-Infective Drug Discovery

Volume 3

by

Atta-ur-Rahman , M. Iqbal Choudhary

DOI: 10.2174/97816080591261140301
eISBN: 978-1-60805-912-6, 2014
ISBN: 978-1-60805-913-3
ISSN: 1879-663X (Print)



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Indexed in: EMBASE

This ebook series brings updated reviews to readers interested in advances in the development of anti-infective drug design and discov...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Preface

- Pp. i-iii (3)

Atta-ur-Rahman and M. Iqbal Choudhary

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iv-vii (4)

Atta-ur-Rahman and M. Iqbal Choudhary

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Drug Discovery for TB: Frontiers and Perspectives

- Pp. 3-31 (29)

Leonardo B. Marino, M. Miyata, P.C. Souza, C.Q.F. Leite and F.R. Pavan

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Therapeutic Limitations due to Antibiotic Drug Resistance: Road to Alternate Therapies

- Pp. 72-141 (70)

Ashima Kushwaha Bhardwaj, Kittappa Vinothkumar, Neha Rajpara, Priyabrata Mohanty and Braj Mohan Ram Narayan Singh Kutar

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Applications for Virus Vaccine Vectors in Infectious Disease Research

- Pp. 142-172 (31)

Kathleen L. Hefferon

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Newcastle Disease Virus as a Promising Vector against Infectious Diseases and as a Potential Agent against Cancers

- Pp. 173-193 (21)

Xiaodong Zhang, Mingming Han, Chao Gao, Renfu Yin, Donald L. Reynolds, Dylan Frabutt, Liangxue Lai, Minhua Sun, Ying Chen, Xiang Li and Zhuang Ding

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Basis of Anti-Infective Therapy against Leishmaniasis and Future Perspectives

- Pp. 194-316 (123)

Adil M. Allahverdiyev, Tanil Kocagoz, Melahat Bagirova, Emrah Sefik Abamor, Sinem Oktem Okullu, Nihan Aytekin Unubol, Rabia Cakir Koc, Sezen Canim Ates, Meral Miraloglu and Serhat Elcicek

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In Silico Study Verifying Antiviral Activity of Proanthocyanidins with Special Reference to Dengue Virus

- Pp. 317-338 (22)

Lakshmi Chandrasekaran, Koji Ichiyama, Vivian Feng Chen, Akiko Saito, Yoshiyuki Yoshinaka and Naoki Yamamoto

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Index

- Pp. 339-361 (23)

Atta-ur-Rahman and M. Iqbal Choudhary

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Preface

Infectious diseases are slowly becoming a major threat to human survival. Many people predict the return of the pre-antibiotic period due to the emergence of resistance against all major classes of antibiotics. It is now more difficult to treat infectious diseases than it was in the last several decades. Super-bugs, XRDs and TRDs, now result in more deaths than ever before. Many nosocomial infections are now spread in communities, largely affecting the malnourished populations, living in poor hygienic conditions in densely populated regions of the world. Difficulty in treating infections is directly affecting the outcome of surgical intervention, pre-mature birth, and hospital care of elderly and immune compromised patients. The dwindling supply of effective medicines against prevailing infectious diseases is yet another challenge, as fewer and fewer pharmaceutical companies are interested to work in this field due to economic reasons. Yet fortunately academic and research communities continue to work towards understanding the infectious diseases and resistance in positive agents at the molecular level. The scientific literature is constantly being enriched with useful information and seminal discoveries. This is where we feel the eBook series such as the “Frontier in Anti-Infective Drug Discovery” can play an important role in updating the scientific community and providing them with an overview of key recent findings.

Volume 3 of the eBook series entitled, Frontiers in Anti-Infective Drug Discovery”, is a useful compilation of six scholarly reviews, contributed by some of the most eminent researchers in the field. We expect this volume to be a useful treatise for researchers interested in infections and their treatments.

In the first article, Marino et al skillfully review the success and failures in the discovery and development of anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs. TB has been a major global threat, particularly in developing countries which has attracted major attention in the last two decades due to emergence of XRD TB, co-infection with HIV, and alarming increase in TB patients. The review focuses on major impediments in anti-TB drug discovery as well as some of the most promising leads currently in the process of development.

Bhardwaj et al have contributed a review on the growing understanding of the resistance mechanisms in infection causing microorganisms. The possibility of attacking the virulence of bacteria rather than the bug itself in order to circumvent the MDR has been discussed. The key factors responsible for fast emerging resistance are discussed, along with appropriate scientific and public response.

Vaccines have played an important role in controlling viral infections in the past five decades. However, the potential of virus expression vectors for generating vaccines against bacterial and fungal infections has not been fully explored. Hefferon reviews the potential of using the vectors based on viruses for the delivery of vaccines or other immunization agents against infectious diseases. The review also summarizes the current successes and future challenges in using virus vaccines against prevailing infections.

Zhang et al have contributed a comprehensive review on the use of Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-based vector vaccines against emerging and re-emerging pathogens. Newcastle disease is one of the most important diseases in the poultry industry. The oncolytic properties of certain strains of NDV have also been discussed as innovative therapy against cancers.

The vector-born protozoal tropical diseases cause major mortality and morbidity to a large segment of the world population in over 80 countries. Allahverdiyev et al review various aspects of leishmaniasis, a major disease caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania. Various approaches to combat this wide spread disease, including prospects of development of vaccines, chemotherapy, physical treatment, immunotherapy, phototherapy and nanotechnological products have been discussed.

Proantocynidins, polyphonolic natural products of plant origin, are known for diverse biological activities. Yamamoto et al have contributed an article, comprehensively reviewing the in silico and in vitro studies conducted on anti-viral activity of proanthcynidins, particularly dengue virus.

This volume of this eBook series is the result of hard work of so many eminent contributors, for which we express our profound gratitude. We would also like to acknowledge the commitment and hard work of the excellent team of Bentham Science Publishers, led by Mr. Mahmood Alam, Director Bentham Science Publishers. The efforts of Ms. Fariya Zulfiqar, Assistant Manager Publications, deserve special appreciation.

Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS

Honorary Life Fellow
Kings College
University of Cambridge
UK

Prof. M. Iqbal Choudhary
H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry
International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences
University of Karachi
Pakistan

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Atta-ur-Rahman
University of Cambridge
Kings College
Cambridge
UK


M. Iqbal Choudhary
H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry
University of Karachi
Karachi, 75270
Pakistan




Contributor(s):
Adil M. Allahverdiyev
Department of Bioengineering
Yildiz Technical University
Istanbul
Turkey


Akiko Saito
Graduate School of Engineering
Osaka Electro-communication University (OECU)
Osaka , 572-8530
Japan


Ashima Kushwaha Bhardwaj
Department of Human Health and Diseases
Indian Institute of Advanced Research
Koba Institutional Area
Gandhinagar
Gujarat, 382 007
India


Braj Mohan Ram Narayan Singh Kutar
Department of Human Health and Diseases
Indian Institute of Advanced Research
Koba Institutional Area
Gandhinagar
Gujarat, 382 007
India


C.Q.F. Leite
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences – UNESP –
Univ Estadual Paulista
Department of Biological Sciences –
Araraquara
SP
Brazil


Chao Gao
Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education
Institute of Zoonosis
College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University
Changchun
130062
China


Donald L. Reynolds
Atlantic Veterinary College
University of Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island
Canada


Dylan Frabutt
Michigan State University
East Lansing
MI, 48824
USA


Emrah Sefik Abamor
Department of Bioengineering
Yildiz Technical University
Istanbul
Turkey


F.R. Pavan
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences – UNESP –
Univ Estadual Paulista
Department of Biological Sciences –
Araraquara
SP
Brazil


Kathleen L. Hefferon
Cornell University
Ithaca
NY, 14886
USA


Kittappa Vinothkumar
Department of Human Health and Diseases
Indian Institute of Advanced Research
Koba Institutional Area
Gandhinagar
Gujarat, 382 007
India


Koji Ichiyama
Translational ID Lab, Department of Microbiology,
Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore
14 Medical Drive, #15-02 Centre for Translational Medicine (MD6)
117599
Singapore


Lakshmi Chandrasekaran
Translational ID Lab, Department of Microbiology,
Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore
14 Medical Drive, #15-02 Centre for Translational Medicine (MD6)
117599
Singapore


Leonardo B. Marino
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences – UNESP –
Univ Estadual Paulista
Department of Biological Sciences –
Araraquara
SP
Brazil


Liangxue Lai
Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education
Institute of Zoonosis, College of Veterinary Medicine
Jilin University
Changchun, 130062
China


M. Miyata
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences – UNESP –
Univ Estadual Paulista
Department of Biological Sciences –
Araraquara
SP
Brazil


Melahat Bagirova
Department of Bioengineering
Yildiz Technical University
Istanbul
Turkey


Meral Miraloglu
Cukurova University
Vocational School of Health
Adana
Turkey


Mingming Han
Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education
Institute of Zoonosis, College of Veterinary Medicine
Jilin University
Changchun, 130062
China


Minhua Sun
Institute of Animal Health
Guangdong Academy of Agriculture Sciences
Guangzhou
China


Naoki Yamamoto
Translational ID Lab, Department of Microbiology,
Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore
14 Medical Drive, #15-02 Centre for Translational Medicine (MD6)
117599
Singapore


Neha Rajpara
Department of Human Health and Diseases
Indian Institute of Advanced Research
Koba Institutional Area
Gandhinagar
Gujarat, 382 007
India


Nihan Aytekin
Acibadem University
School of Medicine
Department of Microbiology
Istanbul
Turkey


P.C. Souza
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences – UNESP –
Univ Estadual Paulista
Department of Biological Sciences –
Araraquara
SP
Brazil


Priyabrata Mohanty
Department of Human Health and Diseases
Indian Institute of Advanced Research
Koba Institutional Area
Gandhinagar
Gujarat, 382 007
India


Rabia Cakir Koc
Department of Bioengineering
Yildiz Technical University
Istanbul
Turkey


Renfu Yin
Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education
Institute of Zoonosis, College of Veterinary Medicine
Jilin University
Changchun, 130062
China


Serhat Elcicek
Firat University
Department of Bioengineering
Elazig
Turkey


Sezen Canim Ates
Department of Bioengineering
Yildiz Technical University
Istanbul
Turkey


Sinem Oktem
Acibadem University
School of Medicine
Department of Microbiology
Istanbul
Turkey


Tanıl Kocagoz
Acibadem University
School of Medicine
Department of Microbiology
Istanbul
Turkey


Vivian Feng Chen
Translational ID Lab, Department of Microbiology,
Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore
14 Medical Drive, #15-02 Centre for Translational Medicine (MD6)
117599
Singapore


Xiang Li
Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education
Institute of Zoonosis, College of Veterinary Medicine
Jilin University
Changchun, 130062
China


Xiaodong Zhang
Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education
Institute of Zoonosis, College of Veterinary Medicine
Jilin University
Changchun, 130062
China


Ying Chen
College of Animal Science and Technology
Guangxi University
Nanning
China


Yoshiyuki Yoshinaka
Department of Molecular Virology
Graduate 15 School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University
Tokyo, 113-5819
Japan


Zhuang Ding
Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education
Institute of Zoonosis, College of Veterinary Medicine
Jilin University
Changchun, 130062
China




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