Advances in HIV Treatment: HIV Enzyme Inhibitors and Antiretroviral Therapy

Book Series: Frontiers in HIV Research

Volume 1

by

Gene D. Morse, Sarah Nanzigu

DOI: 10.2174/97816810805671150101
eISBN: 978-1-68108-056-7, 2015
ISBN: 978-1-68108-057-4
ISSN: 2405-9862 (Print)
ISSN: 2405-9889 (Online)



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Advances in HIV Treatment: HIV Enzyme Inhibitors and Antiretroviral Therapy presents comprehensive and updated inform...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i

Charles Chiedza Maponga

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Preface

- Pp. ii

Gene D. Morse and Sarah Nanzigu

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iii

Gene D. Morse and Sarah Nanzigu

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Acknowledgements

- Pp. iv

Gene D. Morse and Sarah Nanzigu

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Introduction

- Pp. 3-22 (20)

Sarah Nanzigu, Francis Xavier Kasujja and Immaculate Nankya

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HIV-1 Entry Inhibitors

- Pp. 23-43 (21)

Joshua R. Sawyer, Charles S. Venuto and Gene D. Morse

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Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

- Pp. 44-61 (18)

Amy Moss, Cara Felton and Sarah Nanzigu

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Integrase Inhibitors

- Pp. 62-74 (13)

Sarah Nanzigu and Francis Xavier Kasujja

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Protease Enzyme Inhibition

- Pp. 75-96 (22)

Rebecca A. Sumner, Cindy J. Bednasz, Qing Ma and Gene D. Morse

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Pharmacogenomics and Antiretroviral Therapy: Pharmacogenomics of HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors and Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors - Implications for Personalized Antiretroviral Therapy

- Pp. 97-114 (18)

Qing Ma, Kevin Hsu and Gene D. Morse

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HIV Co-Treatment

- Pp. 115-135 (21)

Sarah Nanzigu, Jaran Eriksen and Pauline Byakika-Kibwika

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Demographic Influence on the Evolution of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART)

- Pp. 136-153 (18)

Sarah Nanzigu, Moses R. Kamya and Gene D. Morse

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Subject Index

- Pp. 154-160 (7)

Gene D. Morse and Sarah Nanzigu

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Foreword

It is over three decades since man started battling the human immunodeficiency virus and the diseases associated with it. Although HIV has caused millions of deaths especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, no fully reliable cure or prevention of the viral transmission has been identified. Drugs that suppress viral replication (antiretrovirals) remain the only hope for millions of persons infected with the virus. Since the approval of the first antiretroviral agent in 1985, over 30 such products have been registered. Treatment regimens changed from single drug therapies to combinations with highly active antiretroviral drugs, and those combinations also keep changing with new information and therapies. Consolidated updates on data and evidence of effectiveness of these drugs need to be availed to scientists and clinical practitioners. The ever increasing information motivated the writing of a comprehensive book containing consolidated information on the different available and upcoming antiretroviral agents. This book, edited by Prof. Gene Morse and Dr. Sarah Nanzigu provides these materials with considerations of approaches by experts from developed and developing settings. We highly appreciate these experts for their valued input.

This book with updated information on therapies used in HIV management is carefully relayed under respective classes of drugs including Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (RTIs), Protease Inhibitors (PI), Integrase Strand Inhibitors (INSTI), and Entry Inhibitors. Clinically relevant information regarding activity of these agents in different populations is also presented, including comparison of treatment options between resource-limited and resource-rich settings, together with its implications. The book is carefully constructed to become a very valuable asset for scientists and clinicians at different levels of understanding of these drugs. We will highly appreciate feedback from our esteemed readers.

Charles Chiedza Maponga
School of Pharmacy
College of Health Sciences
University of Zimbabwe
Avondale, Harare
Zimbabwe


Acknowledgement

The editors and authors would like to appreciate the following people for their various contributions during the writing of this book. They may not have contributed to the actual writing of book chapters, but their availability to; coordinate, guide or counsel was of great benefit to the making of this project.

We appreciate Dr. Michael Makanga, Director South-South, European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP), for the guidance and encouragement offered at several stages of this writing. We appreciate that you kept open doors for consultations.

The editors and authors would like to acknowledge the coordinating activities rendered by Mrs. Farzia S. Kaufman, Senior Health Information Research Support Specialist Translational Pharmacology Research Core, NYS Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences, University at Buffalo. Without you, this piece of work could not have been a success.

Appreciation further goes to Mr. Davis Odero Osiemo of Odero Osiemo and Company Advocates, Nairobi, Kenya. The guidance and counsel obtained from your expertise was of great help.


Preface

This book focuses on updates in HIV Treatments, an area with a very high turnover of information. Although there aren’t as many new findings related to the human immunodeficiency virus itself, the number of new drugs and targets has grown tremendously since the onset of the epidemic. Treatment guidelines are revised much more often than those of other diseases in order to capture new therapies, changes in regimens, including their indications.

Since the onset of HIV epidemic, more than 30 antiretroviral agents have been approved for use in persons infected with the virus, and those at high risk. Although these drugs are grouped in less than 6 classes, each of them possesses some unique characteristics. These unique attributes can influence vital areas including response to treatment and toxicity profiles. This book is intended to provide compiled and updated information on each of the available and upcoming antiretroviral agents, to assist persons involved in HIV clinical care and research.

The authors have been selected based on their expertise in HIV/AIDS, and we greatly appreciate your valued input into this work. We trust that our esteemed readers will find this information to be of great value.

Gene D. Morse
New York State Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences
University at Buffalo (UB),
Buffalo, Newyork
USA
&
Sarah Nanzigu
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Makerere University College of Health Science
Kampala
Uganda


List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Gene D. Morse
New York State Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences
University at Buffalo
Buffalo, Newyork
USA


Sarah Nanzigu
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Makerere University College of Health Science
Kampala
Uganda




Contributor(s):
Amy Moss
Thomas Street Health Center
Harris Health System
Houston
TX
USA


Cara Felton
School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
University at Buffalo
Buffalo
NY
USA


Charles S. Venuto
Translational Pharmacology Research Core
New York State Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences
University at Buffalo
Buffalo
NY
USA
/
School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
University at Buffalo
Buffalo
NY
USA


Cindy J. Bednasz
Translational Pharmacology Research Core
New York State Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences
University at Buffalo
Buffalo
NY
USA
/
School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
University at Buffalo
Buffalo
NY
USA


Francis Xavier Kasujja
Médecins Sans Frontières
Harare
Zimbabwe


Gene D. Morse
Translational Pharmacology Research Core
New York State Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences
University at Buffalo
Buffalo
NY
USA
/
School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
University at Buffalo
Buffalo
NY
USA


Immaculate Nankya
Joint Clinic Research Centre
Kampala
Uganda


Jaran Eriksen
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Phamracology
University Hospital at Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet
Sweden


Joshua R. Sawyer
Translational Pharmacology Research Core
New York State Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences
University at Buffalo
Buffalo
NY
USA
/
School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
University at Buffalo
Buffalo
NY
USA
/
Erie County Medical Center Corporation
Buffalo
NY
USA


Kevin Hsu
School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
University at Buffalo
Buffalo
NY
USA


Moses R. Kamya
School of Medicine
Makerere University College of Health Sciences
Uganda


Pauline Byakika-Kibwika
Department of Medicine, College of Health Sciences
Makerere University
Uganda


Qing Ma
Translational Pharmacology Research Core
New York State Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences
University at Buffalo
Buffalo
NY
USA
/
School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
University at Buffalo
Buffalo
NY
USA


Rebecca A. Sumner
Translational Pharmacology Research Core
New York State Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences
University at Buffalo
Buffalo
NY
USA
/
School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
University at Buffalo
Buffalo
NY
USA


Sarah Nanzigu
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Makerere University College of Health Science
Kampala
Uganda




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