Frontiers in Drug Design and Discovery

Volume 7

by

Atta-ur-Rahman, Mohammad Iqbal Choudhary

DOI: 10.2174/97816810816561160701
eISBN: 978-1-68108-165-6, 2016
ISBN: 978-1-68108-166-3
ISSN: 1574-0889 (Print)
ISSN: 2212-1064 (Online)



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Frontiers in Drug Design and Discovery is an eBook series devoted to publishing...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Preface

- Pp. i-iii (3)

Atta-ur-Rahman and M. Iqbal Choudhary

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iv-v (2)

Atta-ur-Rahman and M. Iqbal Choudhary

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Metabolic Pathways and Chemotherapy Drugs

- Pp. 3-35 (33)

Mahbuba Rahman

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Cardiotoxicity of Cancer Chemotherapy–Recent Developments

- Pp. 36-83 (48)

Rui Adao, Carolina Maia-Rocha, Diana Santos-Ribeiro, Pedro Mendes- Ferreira, Adelino F. Leite-Moreira and Carmen Bras-Silva

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Advances in Cancer Therapy: Novel Approaches in Combined Drug Treatments

- Pp. 84-138 (55)

Ciro Menale, Maria Teresa Piccolo and Stefania Crispi

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Chemotherapy for Uterine Sarcomas: A Review

- Pp. 139-151 (13)

Akiko Otake, Shinya Matsuzaki, Yutaka Ueda and Kiyoshi Yoshino

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Angiogenesis Inhibitors from Natural Sources

- Pp. 152-222 (71)

Roslida Abd Hamid and Dayang Erna Zulaikha Awang Hamsin

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Personalized Chemotherapy of Tumor Disease Based on System Modeling

- Pp. 223-247 (25)

Biaoru Li

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Nanotherapeutics: Future Medicine For Infectious Diseases

- Pp. 248-297 (50)

Priyanka S. Prabhu, Vandana B. Patravale, Khurshid I. Andrabi and Farooq A. Shiekh

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Subject Index

- Pp. 298-299 (2)

Atta-ur-Rahman and M. Iqbal Choudhary

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Preface

Modern drug design, discovery, and development are inherently interdisciplinary in nature where researchers of various disciplines work together, equipped with the most sophisticated technologies and recent understanding of the diseases at the molecular level. Despite overwhelming activities in this area in the past three decades, a large number of diseases have either remained untreated or their currently available treatments are not sufficiently effective. Emerging drug resistance, and drug associated adverse affects are further complicating this situation. Among the 21, 000 registered drugs, only 1,357 are unique in their structures. This clearly highlights the growing need of innovative and creative health care solutions which can reduce the human suffering. The 7th volume of Frontiers in Drug Design and Discovery comprises seven excellent reviews, contributed by leading experts in these fields. Mahbuba Rahman has contributed a review on metabolic pathways in cancer cells and their relationship with emerging resistance. Metabolic pathways play an important role in promoting cancer cell survival and growth. Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer cell proliferation, supporting enhanced nutrient uptake to supply energetic and biosynthetic pathways. Rahman has highlighted the importance of understanding these pathways and their association with chemotherapeutic resistance. Such in-depth understanding of metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells and its various implications can be used for identifying new targets for anti-cancer drug discovery. Cancer chemotherapy is known to have a number of adverse effects on patients, including cardiotoxicity. Bras-Silva et al. have contributed a detailed review on a whole range of cardiovascular problems associated with the long term use of anti-cancer drugs, including heart failure, ventricular systolic dysfunction, hypertension, thromboembolic disease, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias, and myocardial ischemia. The need of cardiac monitoring, and careful risk assessment is also discussed. The review ends with a summary of various new approaches and therapies which can reduce the risk of cardiovascular events during cancer chemotherapy. Crispi et al. focus their review on innovative therapies and new approaches for cancer treatment. The need for better drugs and improved drug delivery systems against cancers is greatly felt. The review highlights the most recent advances in the field, particularly the use of novel combination therapies and development of nanocarriers for improved drug bioavailability and site specific drug release. These key developments have helped in achieving greater efficacy and lower toxicity in cancer treatment. These approaches also have the capacity to circumvent the emerging drug resistance in cancer chemotherapy. Yoshino et al. have contributed a comprehensive review on various combination of anticancer drugs clinically tried for the treatment of a rare type of uterine sarcomas. This rare cancer has three histological variants, i.e. carcinosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, and endometrial stromal sarcoma. Because of the rarity of this cancer, the search for specific treatments and welldesigned clinical trials on various combination therapies is not vigorously pursued. This review provides a commentary of innovative combinations of anti-cancer agents that are now being tested for the treatment of all three variants of uterine sarcomas. Angiogenesis is a normal process for healing and reproduction. This involves the growth of new capillary blood vessels. However, in pathological conditions, angiogenesis leads to abnormal blood vessel growth. This then becomes the underlying process for many deadly diseases, including cancers. Roslida Abd Hamid et al. have reviewed various strategies targeting biochemical and cellular events involved in the tumor angiogenesis. Most of the anti-cancer drugs are non-specific in nature, and thus associated with numerous side effects. Moreover, substances which inhibit angiogenesis specifically act on new cells. The authors have reviewed the various classes of natural substances, including marine natural products, with anti-angiogenic activities. Methods for validating the anti-angiogenic inhibitory activities of test substances have also been mentioned. Biaoru Li has focused the next chapter on recent developments on the emerging field of personalized medicine. The entire concept is presented in an easy to understand manner by systematically describing personalized chemotherapy. This starts with the genomic analysis from tumor tissue sampling and ends at the identification of the most sensitive substances from the available drugs. Through this case study, the concept of personalized medicine i.e. “the right treatment for the right person at the right time”, is skillfully described. With the introduction of next generation sequencing, and system modeling related to drug discovery, the concept of personalized medicine would be widely applied. The last review in this volume is related to the application of nanotherapeutics in the treatment of infectious diseases. Nanotherapy is the newest mode of treatment that can be applied for the treatment for various diseases. Sheikh et al. describe the hypothesis and idea of a nanotherapeutic system, and the various aspects related to it such as change of properties of substances at the nano-levels, testing of the new drugs, and the safety assessment of the new nano-substances. The key challenges in the treatment of infectious diseases include drug resistance, less bioavilability, and non-specificity of potent antibiotics. This review highlights the advances in drug delivery through nanocarriers which can solve most of these problems associated with conventional antiobiotics therapeutics. In the end, we are extremely grateful to all the contributors for the timely submission of their reviews. The 7th volume of the eBook series is the results of the efficient coordination and excellent management of the entire team of Bentham Science Publishers. We would like the recognize the efforts of Mr. Omer Shafi (Assistant Manager Publications), Shehzad Naqvi (Senior Manager Publications) and team leader Mr. Mahmood Alam (Director Publications) for putting together an excellent treatise of well written articles in a time efficient manner. We are confident that this volume of eBook series will receive a wide appreciation from students, young researchers, and established scientists.

Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS
Kings College
University of Cambridge
Cambridge
UK

&

M. Iqbal Choudhary
H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry
International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences
University of Karachi
Karachi
Pakistan

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Atta-ur-Rahman FRS
Honorary Life Fellow
Kings College
University of Cambridge
UK


Mohammad Iqbal Choudhary
H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry
International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences
University of Karachi
Karachi
Pakistan




Contributor(s):
Adelino F. Leite-Moreira
Department of Physiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine
University of Porto
Alameda Professor Hernâni Monteiro
4200-319 Porto
Portugal


Akiko Otake
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Minoh City Hospital, 5-7-1, Kayano, Minoh
Osaka
Japan


Biaoru Li
Department of Pediatrics
Medical College at GA
Augusta
GA 30912
USA


Carmen Brás-Silva
Department of Physiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine
University of Porto
Alameda Professor Hernâni Monteiro
4200-319 Porto
Portugal
/
Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences
University of Porto
Porto
Portugal


Carolina Maia-Rocha
Department of Physiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine
University of Porto
Alameda Professor Hernâni Monteiro
4200-319 Porto
Portugal


Ciro Menale
Gene Expression & Molecular Genetics Laboratory
Institute of Biosciences and BioResources
CNR Naples
Italy
/
Institute of Genetics and Biomedical Research CNRUOS Milan
c/o Humanitas Clinical Institute Research Center Rozzano
Milan
Italy


Dayang Erna Zulaikha Awang Hamsin
Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan
Sarawak
Malaysia


Diana Santos-Ribeiro
Pulmonary Hypertension Research Group, Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec Research Center
Laval University
Quebec City
Canada


Farooq A. Shiekh
Avalon University School of Medicine
Curacao
Netherlands Antilles


Khurshid I. Andrabi
Department of Biotechnology
University of Kashmir
Srinagar
India


Kiyoshi Yoshino
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita
Osaka
Japan


Mahbuba Rahman
Division of Experimental Biology Sidra Medical and Research Center Burj Doha, 7th Floor
Doha
Qatar


Maria Teresa Piccolo
Gene Expression & Molecular Genetics Laboratory
Institute of Biosciences and BioResources
CNR Naples
Italy


Pedro Mendes-Ferreira
Department of Physiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine
University of Porto
Alameda Professor Hernâni Monteiro
4200-319 Porto
Portugal


Priyanka S. Prabhu
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology
Institute of Chemical Technology
Nathalal Parekh Marg, Matunga
Mumbai-400019
Maharashtra
India


Roslida Abd Hamid
Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang
Selangor
Malaysia


Rui Adão
Department of Physiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine
University of Porto
Alameda Professor Hernâni Monteiro
4200-319 Porto
Portugal


Shinya Matsuzaki
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita
Osaka
Japan


Stefania Crispi
Gene Expression & Molecular Genetics Laboratory
Institute of Biosciences and BioResources
CNR Naples
Italy


Vandana B. Patravale
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology
Institute of Chemical Technology
Nathalal Parekh Marg, Matunga
Mumbai-400019
Maharashtra
India


Yutaka Ueda
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita
Osaka
Japan




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