Natural Bioactive Compounds from Fruits and Vegetables as Health Promoters: Part 1


by

Luís Rodrigues da Silva, Branca Maria Silva

DOI: 10.2174/97816810823941160101
eISBN: 978-1-68108-239-4, 2016
ISBN: 978-1-68108-240-0



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Plants have been widely used to treat diseases, owing to the presence of bioactive compounds (phytochemicals) which play important rol...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i-ii (2)

Jose Alberto Pereira and Susana Casal

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Preface

- Pp. iii

Luis Rodrigues da Silva and Branca Silva

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iv-vi (3)

Luis Rodrigues da Silva and Branca Silva

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Bioactive Compounds and Health-Promoting Properties of Ficus carica (L.): A Review

- Pp. 3-28 (26)

Ana R. Nunes, Marco G. Alves, Pedro F. Oliveira, Luis R. Silva and Branca M. Silva

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Bioactive Compounds of Citrus as Health Promoters

- Pp. 29-97 (69)

Amilcar Duarte, Catarina Carvalho and Graca Miguel

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Bioactive Compounds of Apples and Pears as Health Promoters

- Pp. 98-109 (12)

Andrea Catalina Galvis-Sánchez and Ada Rocha

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Stone Fruits as a Source of Bioactive Compounds

- Pp. 110-142 (33)

Juliana Vinholes, Daniel Pens Gelain and Marcia Vizzotto

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Pomegranate (Punica granatum): A Natural Approach to Combat Oxidative Stress-Related Diseases

- Pp. 143-179 (37)

Ana Paula Duarte, Angelo Luis and Fernanda C. Domingues

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Nutritional and Functional Properties of Edible Berries: Implications For Health Claims

- Pp. 180-206 (27)

Amadeo Girones-Vilaplana, Cristina Garcia-Viguera, Diego A. Moreno and Ral Dominguez-Perles

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Bioactive Compounds of Tropical Fruits as Health Promoters

- Pp. 207-243 (37)

Iris Feria Romero, Christian Guerra-Araiza, Hermelinda Salgado Ceballos, Juan M. Gallardo, Julia J. Segura-Uribe and Sandra Orozco-Suarez

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Bioactive Compounds from Amazonian Fruits and their Antioxidant Properties

- Pp. 244-264 (21)

Renan C. Chiste and Eduarda Fernandes

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Bioactive Compounds of Banana as Health Promoters

- Pp. 265-283 (19)

Aline Pereira, Rodolfo Moresco and Marcelo Maraschin

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Subject Index

- Pp. 284-286 (3)

Luis Rodrigues da Silva and Branca Silva

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Foreword

For centuries, humans have considered food only as an “energy” source for survival. Clarification of nutritional relevant components, as protein, fat, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins, was determinant to understand metabolic needs, and to adjust consumption patterns. However, this oversimplified definition of food resulted in processed foods composed by mixtures of ingredients rich in these components, while diet is increasingly claimed as being responsible for the most common diseases of modern society: cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and cancer.

When we look upon food from this simplified perspective, it is as if we are regarding food without its “soul”. Indeed, although being difficult to demonstrate causality between food and health, there is now appreciable epidemiologic evidence for the protective role of diets rich in fruits and vegetables, being the Mediterranean diet an interesting example. These foods have thousands of components without nutritional essentiality that have been neglected. The interest in these components has increased tremendously in the last two decades, seeking to identify the dietary bioactive components (i.e., those that have a measurable impact on human health), their amounts, and availability. Simultaneously, it is also becoming clear that each one of these components has different effects and potencies when ingested alone or when taking its part in the complex network of molecules present in whole foods. These are amazing days for food scientists because we are closer to understand these bioactive compounds, while the consumer is following closely scientific advances, being increasingly interested in the health properties of foods.

The editors took an enormous and successful effort to assemble a huge variety of knowledge on different natural bioactive components in foods, bringing together experts working in different fields of food composition and health. This first issue was written to provide readers a comprehensive review of bioactive constituents in fruits from different parts of the world. This assembled knowledge allows the reader to attribute a “health-value” to these foods in a more clear way, understand the care needed to preserve their bioactivity, while also adding value to fruits residues (peels, pulp, seeds, and stones) that are frequently neglected by industry. Therefore, this book is designed for food scientists, nutritionists, pharmaceuticals, physicians, food industrials, as well as for health-conscious consumers. More similar comprehensive reviews on other natural food products will be certainly welcomed by readers.

José Alberto Pereira
Mountain Research Centre (CIMO)
School of Agriculture
Polytechnic Institute of Bragança
Portugal
&
Susana Casal
REQUIMTE / Bromatology Service
Faculty of Pharmacy
University of Porto
Portugal


Preface

Plants have been widely used as food and medicines, since they provide, not only essential nutrients required for human life, but also other bioactive compounds which play important roles in health promotion and disease prevention, commonly known as phytochemicals. Moreover, in the recent years, the impact of lifestyle and dietary choices for human health has increased the interest in fruits and vegetables, as well as in foods enriched with bioactive compounds and nutraceuticals. In fact, epidemiological studies have consistently shown that the Mediterranean diet, characterized by the daily consumption of fruits and vegetables, is strongly associated with reduced risk of developing a wide range of chronic diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases.

Phytochemicals are secondary metabolites present in fruits and vegetables in low concentrations that have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of several pathological conditions. There are thousands of dietary phytochemicals, namely flavonoids, phenolic acids, glucosinolates, terpenes, alkaloids, between many other classes of compounds, which present different bioactivities, such as antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglicemic and other clinically relevant activities. The evidence suggests that the health benefits of consuming fruits and vegetables are attributed to the additive and synergistic interactions between these phytocomponents. Therefore, nutrients and bioactive compounds present in fruits and vegetables should be preferred instead of unnatural and expensive dietary supplements.

In this ebook, we provide an overview about the different classes of phytochemicals commonly found in fruits and vegetables, highlighting their chemical structures, occurrence in fruits and vegetables, biological importance and mechanisms of action. Volume 1 is particularly focused on Mediterranean and Tropical fruits.

Luís Rodrigues da Silva & Branca Silva
CICS – UBI – Health Sciences Research Centre
University of Beira Interior
Portugal

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Luís Rodrigues da Silva


Branca Maria Silva




Contributor(s):
Ana R. Nunes
CICS – UBI – Health Sciences Research Centre
University of Beira Interior
Covilhã
Portugal


Marco G. Alves
CICS – UBI – Health Sciences Research Centre
University of Beira Interior
Covilhã
Portugal


Pedro F. Oliveira
CICS – UBI – Health Sciences Research Centre
University of Beira Interior
Covilhã
Portugal
/
ICBAS – UMIB – Department of Microscopy, Laboratory of Cell Biology
Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar and Unit for Multidisciplinary Research in Biomedicine, University of Porto
Porto
Portugal


Luís R. Silva
CICS – UBI – Health Sciences Research Centre
University of Beira Interior
Covilhã
Portugal
/
IPCB – ESALD – Polytechnic Institute of Castelo Branco
School of Health Dr. Lopes Dias
Castelo Branco
Portugal
/
LEPABE – Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering
University of Porto
Porto
Portugal


Branca M. Silva
CICS – UBI – Health Sciences Research Centre
University of Beira Interior
Covilhã
Portugal


Amílcar Duarte
Center for Mediterranean Bioresources and Food (MeditBio), Faculty of Sciences and Technology
University of Algarve
Faro
Portugal


Catarina Carvalho
Tecnoparque Colombia Nodo Rionegro
SENA
Colombia


Graça Miguel
Center for Mediterranean Bioresources and Food (MeditBio), Faculty of Sciences and Technology
University of Algarve
Faro
Portugal


Andrea Catalina Galvis-Sánchez
REQUIMTE, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering
University of Porto
Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465
Porto
Portugal


Ada Rocha
Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences
University of Porto
Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465
Porto
Portugal
/
LAQV@REQUIMTE
Porto
Portugal


Juliana Vinholes
Embrapa Temperate Agriculture
Pelotas
Brazil


Daniel Pens Gelain
Center of Oxidative Stress Research, Department of Biochemistry
Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Porto Alegre
Brazil


Márcia Vizzotto
Embrapa Temperate Agriculture
Pelotas
Brazil


Ana Paula Duarte
CICS-UBI – Health Sciences Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences
University of Beira Interior
Covilhã
Portugal


Ângelo Luís
CICS-UBI – Health Sciences Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences
University of Beira Interior
Covilhã
Portugal


Fernanda C. Domingues
CICS-UBI – Health Sciences Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences
University of Beira Interior
Covilhã
Portugal


Amadeo Gironés-Vilaplana1
Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Department of Food Science and Technology
Campus University Espinardo
CEBAS (CSIC)
Murcia
Spain


Cristina García-Viguera
Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Department of Food Science and Technology
Campus University Espinardo
CEBAS (CSIC)
Murcia
Spain


Diego A. Moreno
Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Department of Food Science and Technology
Campus University Espinardo
CEBAS (CSIC)
Murcia
Spain


Raúl Domínguez-Perles
Centre for the Research and Technology for Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences
Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (CITAB-UTAD), Quinta de Prados
Vila Real
Portugal


Iris Feria Romero
Unidad de Investigación Médica en Enfermedades Neurológicas. Centro Médico Nacional “Siglo XXI”
Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
México, D.F.
México


Christian Guerra-Araiza
Unidad de Investigación Médica en Farmacología. Centro Médico Nacional “Siglo XXI”.
Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
México, D.F.
México


Hermelinda Salgado Ceballos
Unidad de Investigación Médica en Enfermedades Neurológicas. Centro Médico Nacional “Siglo XXI”
Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
México, D.F.
México


Juan Gallardo
Unidad de Investigación en Enfermedades Nefrológicas. Hospital de Especialidades. Centro Médico Nacional “Siglo XXI”
Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
México, D.F.
México


Julia J. Segura-Uribe
Unidad de Investigación Médica en Enfermedades Neurológicas. Centro Médico Nacional “Siglo XXI”
Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
México, D.F.
México


Sandra Orozco-Suárez
Unidad de Investigación Médica en Enfermedades Neurológicas. Centro Médico Nacional “Siglo XXI”
Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
México, D.F.
México


Renan C. Chisté
UCIBIO, REQUIMTE, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy
University of Porto
Porto
Portugal


Eduarda Fernandes
UCIBIO, REQUIMTE, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy
University of Porto
Porto
Portugal


Aline Pereira
Natural Products Core, Plant Morphogenesis and Biochemistry Laboratory
Federal University of Santa Catarina
Florianopolis
Brazil


Rodolfo Moresco
Natural Products Core, Plant Morphogenesis and Biochemistry Laboratory
Federal University of Santa Catarina
Florianopolis
Brazil


Marcelo Maraschin
Natural Products Core, Plant Morphogenesis and Biochemistry Laboratory
Federal University of Santa Catarina
Florianopolis
Brazil




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