New Aspects of the Renin Angiotensin System in Cardiovascular and Renal Diseases


by

Dulce Elena Casarini, Danielle Yuri Arita, Juliana Almada Colucci, Tatiana Sousa Cunha

DOI: 10.2174/97816810831311160101
eISBN: 978-1-68108-313-1, 2016
ISBN: 978-1-68108-314-8



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The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a hormonal system that is responsible for regulating plasma sodium ion concentration and arteria...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i-ii (2)

L. Gabriel Navar

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Preface

- Pp. iii

Danielle Yuri Arita, Tatiana Sousa Cunha, Juliana Almada Colucci and Dulce Elena Casarini

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iv-viii (5)

Danielle Yuri Arita, Tatiana Sousa Cunha, Juliana Almada Colucci and Dulce Elena Casarini

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Renin Angiotensin System: Old System with New Different Components

- Pp. 3-14 (12)

Danielle Yuri Arita, Rosana Inácio dos Reis, Bruno Sevá Pessôa and Dulce Elena Casarini

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The Important Role of Systemic and Local Renin- Angiotensin System

- Pp. 15-44 (30)

Danielle Sanches Aragão, Lilian Saemi Arita, Rodrigo Yokota, Lilian dos Santos, Larissa Emi Matsumoto, Marie Doki Nogueira, Fernanda Aparecida Ronchi and Danielle Yuri Arita

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Renin-Angiotensin System and Cardiovascular Physiology

- Pp. 45-78 (34)

Maria Cláudia Irigoyen, Kátia De Angelis, Ivana Cinthya de Moraes da Silva, Silvia Lacchini, Janaina Barcellos Ferreira, Kátia Bilhar Scapini and Fernanda Marciano Consolim-Colombo

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Cardiac Intracellular Renin-Angiotensin System

- Pp. 79-91 (13)

Rajesh Kumar, Kenneth M. Baker, Wen Chen, Larissa Miranda Pereira, Candice M. Thomas and Qian Chen Yong

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Angiotensin-(1-7) in the Heart

- Pp. 92-109 (18)

Rodrigo Araújo Fraga-Silva, Anderson José Ferreira and Robson Augusto Souza dos Santos

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Subject Index

- Pp. 359-371 (13)

Danielle Yuri Arita, Tatiana Sousa Cunha, Juliana Almada Colucci and Dulce Elena Casarini

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Foreword

Research on the pleiotropic actions and consequences of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and its many effector components remains fascinating and interesting because new surprises continue to emerge and provide fodder for further analysis and new experimental directions. The older paradigm was so straightforward and simple focusing primarily on the circulating RAS and a single effector peptide, angiotensin II [Ang II]. However, we now know that the system is much more complex exhibiting multiple actions of various active components via different receptors and utilizing various important enzymatic pathways. In this exciting new e-book by Dr. Casarini and her colleagues, a number of important new concepts are presented which further demonstrate the complexity of the RAS system and the many effector components. As pointed out in the first few chapters, evidence obtained during the previous one or two decades has led to an expanded view of the RAS serving paracrine, intracrine, and endocrine functions. Our attention is also directed to the findings that many other angiotensin peptides also exert bioactive roles.

Several of the subsequent chapters then delve into the intricacies of the local tissue RAS activities focusing on the paracrine and intracrine functions of Ang II in the heart and kidneys as well as other angiotensin peptides including Ang 1-7. The more recently discovered components of the tissue RAS, including ACE2 and the prorenin receptor, are also integrated into the overall interactions that occur at the tissue and cellular level and also within the intratubular network in the kidneys. Our attention is then directed to a consideration of the complex enzymatic pathways that are responsible for the generation of the various angiotensin peptides. The roles of tonin, ACE and ACE2 and ACE polymorphisms are examined.

Additional chapters discuss the novel developments related to the ACE2/Mas axis and how it influences formation and action of Ang 1-7, and our evolving concepts regarding the renin-prorenin receptor and their possible roles in regulating the local formation and activities of Ang 1-7 and the prorenin receptor. Completing the book, the remaining chapters deal with RAS related pathophysiology and the roles of immunity and inflammation activated by Ang II, the interactions with the nitric oxide system and catecholamines, and how emotional stress and exercise may alter the activity of the RAS. Finally, a consideration of how the activity of the RAS is modulated in animal models of hypertension and diabetes provides further insights on pathophysiological contributions of the RAS in disease states.

In this e-book, Dr. Casarini and her associates have provided us with an outstanding array of topics which are covered in-depth and will be of tremendous value not only to investigators directly involved in studies of the RAS but also to all colleagues who are interested in obtaining a comprehensive appreciation of the current state of knowledge regarding the regulation and roles of the many components of the “modern” RAS.

L. Gabriel Navar
Department of Physiology
Center of Biomedical Research
Excellence in Hypertension and Renal Biology
Tulane University School of Medicine
USA


Preface

The idea of publishing a book on the new aspects of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in cardiovascular and renal diseases has been developed during the past few years. The need for a book that describes the new approaches of the RAS in the development of cardiovascular and renal diseases and the trend of future research became apparent. The book describes the important role of systemic and local RAS in the development of heart and kidney diseases and its relationship with the immune system, stress and exercise; as well as provides data on the biochemical and pathological changes in these diseases.

Understanding the mechanisms of participation of this system in cardiovascular and intrarenal modulation can lead us to better understand the pathogenesis of diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and chronic renal failure. Even knowing the therapeutic interventions for these diseases, there are many challenges in integrating traditional medical literature and increased information of new technologies that facilitate the comprehension of the molecular and cellular mechanisms.

We have been very fortunate to enlist a group of renowned experts in RAS research for this book, and very grateful to the dedication and contribution of our authors. We hope that book will be useful for researchers working in the field of the RAS.

Danielle Yuri Arita
Tatiana Sousa Cunha
Juliana Almada Colucci
Dulce Elena Casarini

Federal University of São Paulo
São Paulo, Brazil

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Dulce Elena Casarini
Department of Medicine - Nephrology Division
Escola Paulista de Medicina
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Brazil


Danielle Yuri Arita
Department of Medicine - Nephrology Division
Escola Paulista de Medicina
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Brazil


Juliana Almada Colucci
Department of Medicine - Nephrology Division
Escola Paulista de Medicina
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Brazil


Tatiana Sousa Cunha
Department of Science and Technology
Escola Paulista de Medicina
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Brazil




Contributor(s):
A.H. Jan Danser
Division of Pharmacology and Vascular Medicine
Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC
Rotterdam
The Netherlands


Alexandre Costa Pereira
Laboratory of Genetic and Molecular Cardiology
Heart Institute, University of Sao Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Alexis A. Gonzalez
Instituto de Química
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso
Chile.
/
Department of Physiology
Tulane University, School of Medicine
New Orleans
LA, USA


Allyson C. Marshall
The Hypertension & Vascular Disease Center, Department of Physiology & Pharmacology
Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem
North Carolina
USA


Amanda Aparecida Ribeiro
Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Anderson José Ferreira
Departments of Morphology, Biological Sciences Institute
Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte
Minas Gerais
Brazil


Andrea Sanches
Department of Physiological Sciences
Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas
Brazil


Andréia Cristina Febba Gomes
Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Bryan A. Wilson
The Hypertension & Vascular Disease Center, Department of Physiology & Pharmacology
Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem
North Carolina
USA


Bruno Sevá Pessôa
Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine
Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Candice M. Thomas
Division of Molecular Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Texas A&M Health Science Center
College of Medicine; Scott & White; Central Texas Veterans Health Care System, Temple
Texas
USA


Danielle Sanches Aragão
Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Danielle Yuri Arita
Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Debra I. Diz
The Hypertension & Vascular Disease Center, Department of Physiology & Pharmacology
Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem
North Carolina
USA


Dulce Elena Casarini
Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Ebaa Azayadneh
The Hypertension & Vascular Disease Center, Department of Physiology & Pharmacology
Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem
North Carolina
USA


Fernanda Aparecida Ronchi
Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Fernanda Barrinha Fernandes
Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Fernanda Klein Marcondes
Department of Physiological Sciences, Escola de Odontologia de Piracicaba
University of Campinas
Brazil


Fernanda Rezende
University of Mogi das Cruzes
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Flavia F. Jung
Washington Hospital
Washington DC
USA


Hossam A. Shaltout
The Hypertension & Vascular Disease Center, Department of Physiology & Pharmacology
Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem
North Carolina
USA


Ingrid Kazue Mizuno Watanabe
Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Isabela Bezerra Loyola
Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Ivana Cynthia Moraes Silva
University of Sao Paulo, Medical School
Heart Institute, Hypertension Unit
Sao Paulo
Brazil


James C. Rose
The Hypertension & Vascular Disease Center, Department of Physiology & Pharmacology
Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem
North Carolina
USA


Janaína Barcellos Ferreira
University of Sao Paulo Medical School
Heart Institute, Hypertension Unit
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Jorge Luiz Pesquero
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Biological Sciences Institute
Federal University of Minas Gerais
Minas Gerais
Brazil


José Eduardo Krieger
Laboratory of Genetic and Molecular Cardiology
Heart Institute, University of Sao Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


José Geraldo Mill
Department of Physiological Sciences
Federal University of Espírito Santo, Vitória
Espírito Santo
Brazil


Juliana Almada Colucci
Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Juliana Dinéia Perez Brandão
Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Kátia Bilhar Scapini
University of Sao Paulo, Medical School
Heart Institute, Hypertension Unit
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Kátia De Angelis
Nove de Julho University
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Kenneth M. Baker
Division of Molecular Cardiology, Department of Medicine
Texas A&M Health Science Center, College of Medicine; Scott & White; Central Texas Veterans Health Care System, Temple
Texas
USA


Kleiton Augusto dos Santos
Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


L. Gabriel Navar
Department of Physiology and Tulane Hypertension and Renal Center
Tulane University, School of Medicine, New Orleans
LA
USA


Larissa Emi Matsumoto
Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Larissa Miranda Pereira
Division of Molecular Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Texas A&M Health Science Center
College of Medicine; Scott & White; Central Texas Veterans Health Care System, Temple
Texas
USA.
/
Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Lília Firoozmand
Science and Technology Institute
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
São José dos Campos
Brazil


Lilian dos Santos
Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Lilian Saemi Arita
Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Lisete C. Michelini
Department of Physiology, Institute of Biomedical Science
University of São Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Ludimila Forechi
Department of Physiological Sciences
Federal University of Espírito Santo
Vitória
Brazil


Lys Angela Favaroni Mendes Salgado Ribeiro
Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Marcelo Perim Baldo
Department of Physiological Sciences
Federal University of Espírito Santo
Vitória, Espírito Santo
Brazil


Maria Cláudia Costa Irigoyen
University of Sao Paulo Medical School
Heart Institute, Hypertension Unit
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Maria José Costa Sampaio Moura
Life Sciences Center
Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas
Brazil


Marie Doki Nogueira
Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Mark C. Chappell
The Hypertension & Vascular Disease Center, Department of Physiology & Pharmacology
Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem
North Carolina
USA


Mercia de Paula Lima
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Biological Sciences Institute
Federal University of Minas Gerais
Brazil


Minolfa C. Prieto
Department of Physiology and Tulane Hypertension and Renal Center
Tulane University, School of Medicine, New Orleans
LA
USA


Nádia de Sousa da Cunha Bertoncello
Science and Technology Institute
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
São José dos Campos
Brazil


Nestor Schor
Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine
Escola Paulista de Medicina Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Qian Chen Yong
Division of Molecular Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Texas A&M Health Science Center
College of Medicine; Scott & White; Central Texas Veterans Health Care System, Temple
Texas
USA


Rafaela Costa
Department of Physiological Sciences, Escola de Odontologia de Piracicaba
University of Campinas
Brazil


Rajesh Kumar
Division of Molecular Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Texas A&M Health Science Center
College of Medicine; Scott & White; Central Texas Veterans Health Care System, Temple
Texas
USA


Rebeca Caldeira Machado
Department of Physiological Sciences
Federal University of Espírito Santo, Vitória
Espírito Santo
Brazil


Roberto Mesquita Soler
Department of Urology, Escola Paulista de Medicina
Federal University of São Paulo
São Paulo
Brazil


Robson Augusto Souza dos Santos
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Biological Sciences Institute
Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte
MG
Brazil


Rodolfo Mattar Rosa
Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Rodrigo Araújo Fraga-Silva
Institute of Bioengineering
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
Lausanne
Switzerland


Rodrigo Yokota
Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Rosana Inácio dos Reis
Department of Biochemistry, Biomembrane Structure Unity
University of Oxford
England
United Kingdom


Roseli Peres Moreira
Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Sebastião Donato Silva Jr
Department of Physiology, Institute of Biomedical Science
University of São Paulo
São Paulo
Brazil


Silvia Lacchinni
Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biomedical Science
University of Sao Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Tatiana Sousa Cunha
Science and Technology Institute
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
São José dos Campos
Brazil


Valéria Alves Fernades
Departmentof Physiology and Biophysics
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Brazil


Vander José das Neves
School of Physical Education and Sports
University of Sao Paulo
São Paulo
Brazil


Vanessa Oliveira
Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil


Wen Chen
Division of Molecular Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Texas A&M Health Science Center
College of Medicine; Scott & White; Central Texas Veterans Health Care System, Temple
Texas
USA


Zaira Palomino Jara
Nephrology Division, Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina
Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Sao Paulo
Brazil




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