Water-borne Protozoa in Humans

Book Series: Frontiers in Parasitology

Volume 2

by

Fabrizio Bruschi

DOI: 10.2174/97816810843361170201
eISBN: 978-1-68108-433-6, 2017
ISBN: 978-1-68108-434-3
ISSN: 2542-4211 (Print)
ISSN: 2542-422X (Online)



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Several parasites are able to spread diseases through contaminated water. While the spread of diseases through contaminated water appe...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i-ii (2)

Maria Elena Bottazzi

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Preface

- Pp. iii

Fabrizio Bruschi

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iv-v (2)

Fabrizio Bruschi

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Blastocystis spp.

- Pp. 3-24 (22)

Ildebrando Patamia and Marco Giuseppe Prato

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Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis

- Pp. 25-67 (43)

Simone M. Cacciò and Fabio Tosini

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Cyclospora cayetanensis

- Pp. 68-81 (14)

Ynes R. Ortega

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Cystoisospora belli

- Pp. 82-102 (21)

Massimiliano Galdiero, Settimia Alfano, Maria Elena Della Pepa, Gianluigi Franci, Claudia Ledda and Marilena Galdiero

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Entamoeba histolytica and other Pathogenic Intestinal Amoebea

- Pp. 103-123 (21)

Eduardo R. Cobo and Kris Chadee

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Free-living Amoebae

- Pp. 124-149 (26)

Vinay Khanna

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Giardia and Giardiasis

- Pp. 150-220 (71)

Showgy Ma`ayeh and Staffan Svärd

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Microsporidia

- Pp. 221-275 (55)

Nadia A. El Dib and Thomas Weitzel

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Subject Index

- Pp. 276-284 (9)

Fabrizio Bruschi

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Foreword

Parasitology continues to be a very exciting and stimulating field of study and has regained global attention and interest especially due to the data obtained from the recent 2010 and 2013 Global Burden of Disease studies that highlight how parasitic infections continue to be amongst the leading causes for the highest disabilities worldwide. In addition, even though amazing strides have been achieved towards the Millennium Development Goals, the UN member states and the world are now faced with much broader and more audacious post-2015 goals as part of the new Sustainable Development Goals to be achieved by 2030. For these objectives to be achieved it is very important not only to focus and monitor available and ongoing control implementation programs globally, but also complement these efforts with novel research leading to new and affordable health innovations.

Therefore, when Professor Fabrizio Bruschi invited me to write the foreword for this book titled “Frontiers in Parasitology: Water-borne Protozoa in Humans” it immediately captured my interest and excitement to know that with this book physicians, health professionals and scientists around the world will rapidly gain access to the most up to date advances and innovation about the epidemiology, pathobiology, laboratory and clinical diagnosis, and available prevention and treatment measures for this very important group of infectious and tropical diseases. It is well known that protozoan infections are important causes of diarrheal and other gastrointestinal diseases in humans including the major causes for travellers’ diarrhea. In addition, some of the protozoans can affect the central nervous system and even cause keratitis.

After reading this book the hope is that it will raise awareness of the importance of water-borne protozoan infections as global public health problems, while at the same time generate new ideas, new networks and partnerships and bring new translational discoveries from the bench into the clinic ultimately leading to an improvement in health delivery mechanisms benefiting global strategies.

Indeed, and of no surprise if one were to search for a good compilation of recent articles in the last 10 years that summarizes the global distribution and burden in this field of study, there are very limited publications that provide a comprehensive review of the global health impact of waterborne parasitic protozoan infections worldwide. Furthermore, for most if not all the water-borne diseases, effective drug treatments and vaccines are not yet available and diagnostic tools are not highly sensitive or reliable especially for point of care diagnostics in resource-poor settings. One of the most recent reviews on water-borne protozoa was written by Baldursson and Karanis and published in Water Research in 2011, and shows that in Australia, Europe and North America at least 199 outbreaks of these diseases occurred and were reported between 2004-2010. However, the authors also highlight that the countries that most likely have the greatest populations afflicted by water-borne parasitic infectious and other tropical diseases lack strong surveillance systems, leading to a chronic under-reporting or even no reporting of their public health burden.

This book, then, aims to fill this gap in knowledge as well as provide a comprehensive overview of major parasitic water-borne protozoan diseases. It includes an impressive list of authors and co-authors internationally recognized in the field of parasitology, covering in a compilation of 8 chapters the new and recent insights for waterborne-protozoa including Blastocystis, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Cystoisospora, Entamoeba and other pathogenic intestinal amoebae, free living amoebae, Giardia and Microsporidia.

Maria Elena Bottazzi
Associate Dean, National School of Tropical Medicine
Professor, Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Tropical Medicine & Molecular Virology & Microbiology
Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA

Distinguished Professor
Department of Biology, Baylor University, Waco, Texas, USA

Deputy Director, Sabin Vaccine Institute Product Development Partnership
Director for Product Development, Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Children’s Hospital Center for Vaccine Development, Texas, USA

Editor in Chief, Current Tropical Medicine Reports, Springer, US


Preface

Water is essential for living organisms on Earth, but it can also spread toxic substances and pathogens for humans and animals, particularly in low income Countries. At global level, waterborne pathogen exposure in fact correlates significantly with low socio-economical conditions.

During the recent past, human development, population growth, extreme weather events as well as natural calamities due to climate changes have affected both the quality and quantity of water resources, increasing the occurrence of water-borne infectious diseases. These are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, with an estimate of 4.0% of global deaths and 5.7% of the global disease burden (in terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years) attributable to a complex of factors like water, sanitation, and hygiene conditions. Water-borne pathogens such as viruses, bacteria and protozoa are responsible for diarrheal diseases which affect, sometimes in a serious manner, in particular children, worldwide.

This E-book is designed to inform the reader on water-borne protozoa infections in humans.

The audience is represented by medical students, parasitologists, clinical microbiologists, infectivologists, researchers, environmental technicians, people who are engaged in water purification and control and public health personnel. Each chapter addresses the history, morphology and life cycle, global epidemiology and risk factors, immunology and immunopathology, symptoms, diagnosis and detection methods, treatment and perspectives of control for major waterborne parasites transmissible with water, either used for drinking or for recreational activities.

In addition to the parasites considered in this book, others can be transmitted by water, like Toxoplasma gondii for example, but were not considered in this book.

The Editor is grateful to David Di Cave, Marco Lalle, Simonetta Mattiucci, Walhul Khan, Una Ryan, Chuck Sterling, Magda Azab, Nicola Coppola for valuable reviewing process.

Fabrizio Bruschi
Università di Pisa
Pisa
Italy

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Fabrizio Bruschi
University of Pisa
Pisa
Italy




Contributor(s):
Claudia Ledda
Department of Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology, II Università di Napoli
Naples
Italy


Eduardo R. Cobo
Gastrointestinal Research Group, University of Calgary, Calgary
Alberta
Canada


Fabio Tosini
Department of Infectious, Parasitic and Immunomediated Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Rome
Italy


Gianluigi Franci
Department of Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology, II Università di Napoli
Naples
Italy


Ildebrando Patamia
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania
Catania
Italy


Kris Chadee
Gastrointestinal Research Group, University of Calgary, Calgary
Alberta
Canada


Marco Prato
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania
Catania
Italy


Maria Elena Della Pepa
Department of Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology, II Università di Napoli
Naples
Italy


Marilena Galdiero
Department of Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology, II Università di Napoli
Naples
Italy


Massimiliano Galdiero
Department of Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology, II Università di Napoli
Naples
Italy


Nadia Aly E-Dib
Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University
Cairo
Egypt


Settimia Alfano
Department of Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology, II Università di Napoli
Naples
Italy


Showgy Maayeh
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University
Uppsala
Sweden


Simone M. Cacciò
Department of Infectious, Parasitic and Immunomediated Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Rome
Italy


Staffan Svärd
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University
Uppsala
Sweden


Thomas Wetzel
Clínica Alemana School of Medicine,Universidad del Desarrollo
Santiago
Chile


Vinu Khanna
Department of Microbiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal
Karnataka
India


Ynes R. Ortega
Center for Food Safety, University of Georgia, Griffin
Georgia
USA




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