Language Disturbances in Adulthood: New Advances from the Neurolinguistics Perspective

by

Marcia Radanovic , Leticia Lessa Mansur

DOI: 10.2174/97816080510831110101
eISBN: 978-1-60805-108-3, 2011
ISBN: 978-1-60805-681-1



Indexed in: Scopus, EBSCO.

Language is the most versatile and fascinating of all human cognitive functions, constituting a field of interest in very different ar...[view complete introduction]
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Normal Language: Cognitive and Linguistic Models

- Pp. 3-24 (22)

Marcia Radanovic and Leticia Lessa Mansur

Abstract

<p>Language is the “most human” of all cognitive abilities. Hence, understanding how our brains process language has intrigued neuroscientists since the first description of an aphasic patient by Paul Broca at the end of the eighteenth century. Much of our knowledge about language processing derives from the observation of signs and symptoms caused by brain injury, but normal language is also a topic of investigation among researchers, from Psycholinguistics to Computational Sciences. However, the exact nature of linguistic processing is yet to be fully understood. Oral language comprehension seems to be based on the auditory discrimination of word subunits, which vary depending on the language considered: stress units (English), syllables (French), mora (Japanese), and so on. These subunits must then be grouped and a selection mechanism has to discriminate among similar words to avoid ambiguities. Grammatical rules contribute to organize words (in their morphosyntactic aspects), and, finally, context and prosody give their contribution so that the listener is able to understand the content of discourse, as in a conversation. Language production relies on the phylogenetic development of a specific supra-laryngeal articulation mechanism under neocortical control, and also of a social competence now described as Theory of Mind (ToM). Language production starts with the mental generation of a message to be conveyed; this message has to be translated into grammatically encoded words. Grammatical encoding includes lemma selection, morphosyntactic composition, morphophonological and phonetic encoding, in a complex process at the end of which the message (words) is uttered by the speaker.</p>

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