From first obtaining of amorphous materials, Au-Si alloys produced in 1959, in very small quantities by a technique of cooling of the melt with speeds of millions of degrees per second, this class of materials has been a great concern to materials science researchers.
The special application properties of this class of materials associated with the particular structure of metallic glasses have a particular interest of specialists in several fields (metallurgy, electronics, chemistry, aeronautics, and other). Since early 60’s until now, the rapid solidification technology materials have made great progresses, so both amorphous, nanostructure and quasicrystalline materials can be obtained. These materials can be processed in a wide range of chemical compositions and under different forms, like wires, filaments, rods, and others both in labor and industrial quantities.
These papers provide to the specialists in the field of rapid solidification different theoretical data on physical and chemical phenomena that occur in rapid solidification process including the process parameters for the widely used chill-block melt spin technique. It also presents experimental data on mechanical, electrical, magnetic properties as basis elements for finding of new industrial applications of this type of material. The book edited by Prof. Dr. Mustafa Kamal and researcher Usama S. Mohammad is thoroughly documented and provides an extensive vision on the obtaining of new classes of materials by rapid solidification. The book can successfully serve as basis of study both for the renowned researchers in the field, for students specializing in the materials science and for specialists from companies that coordinate the activity of obtaining the metallic glasses on industrial scale.
Prof. Dr. Leontin Druga
Member of the Romanian Academy for Technical Sciences
Since the emergence of materials science, which denoted a new scientific concept, born out of physical metallurgy some time in the early 1950s, many advanced materials and techniques were developed and the interest in rapidly-solidified alloys has increased dramatically. The subject area has moved a long way since Pol Duwez reported his remarkable discoveries in 1960. It has become an integral part of the fabric of materials science and grown to be evident that there are often several alternative routes to a final outcome whether that is a particular microstructure, combination of properties or a product for engineering application. As a consequence, a number of metallic materials have emerged by simply the very rapid extraction of heat from the metallic melt, which not only are viewed as a challenging field for research but also, and due to their new properties, they are being considered for structural, functional and smart properties. Indeed, one of the most interesting applications of the technique is the synthesis of new metallic alloy phases which cannot be obtained either under equilibrium conditions or by normal quenching in the solid state.
The main product of the chill-block melt spin (CBMS) technique is a metastable metallic material. Metastability here is a state of equilibrium that is stable under working conditions, giving us the useful and valuable physical and chemical properties of the new metallic material. Amorphous, quasicrystalline, nano-, submicro- and fine micro-structured metallic materials have been effectively produced by CBMS route, with best reduced cost, making the uniqueness of this technique over the other rivals like melt atomization. Many advanced engineering fields require these products, like aerospace and robotics industries, as they have the best strength-to-weight ratios, especially when used for making advanced composite materials.
Metal physics requires a deep knowledge of the phase diagrams of elements and compounds as well as the understanding of phase transformations and the control of reaction kinetics. Thus, we tried in this study to simplify the subject of the industrial technique of rapid solidification processing (RSP) throughout the study of the CBMS technique which is considered world-widely a most promising means for producing new and advanced metallic materials, including metal matrix composites. The technique itself is simple and perfect and can be adapted to produce either low-cost or high-cost products by only one step, saving money and energy in comparison to other technologies.
This study implies three main topics; the first is the rapid solidification theory, the second is the CBMS technique and the third is a study of the effect of RSP on the structural and the physical properties of metals and alloys with applications. In our treatment, we used simple mathematics to make the topics clear as much as possible, followed by a very good deal of references for any further readings covering all sides of this review.
Mustafa Kamal and Usama S. Mohammad
List of Contributors
Faculty of Science, Mansoura University
Usama S. Mohammad
Faculty of Science in Damietta, Mansoura University
New Damietta City