Pediatric Otolaryngology Emergencies
- Pp. 109-123 (15)Jonathan R. Mark and Cristina M. Baldssari
Clinicians must be familiar with the evaluation and treatment of common pediatric otolaryngology emergencies such as airway obstruction, head and neck trauma, caustic ingestion, airway and esophageal foreign bodies, and epistaxis. Pediatric otolaryngology emergencies frequently involve the airway. Etiologies for airway obstruction in children are diverse and include disease processes like croup, bacterial tracheitis, and angioedema. The majority of children with foreign body aspiration do not present with acute airway compromise. These patients often have non-specific symptoms such as chronic cough. Thus, the provider must have a high index of suspicion to make the diagnosis of an airway foreign body. While laryngeal trauma in children is rare, findings such as neck crepitus and stridor warrant further evaluation to rule out pathology such as laryngeal fracture. The majority of cases of pediatric epistaxis can be managed conservatively with topical decongestants and chemical cautery of the anterior septum.