Common Pathogenic Mechanisms between Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease: Steps toward Therapy

Book Series: Recent Advances in Alzheimer Research

Volume 1


Ahmad Salehi, Michael Rafii, Cristy Phillips

DOI: 10.2174/97816810813801150101
eISBN: 978-1-68108-138-0, 2015
ISBN: 978-1-68108-139-7
ISSN: 2452-2554 (Print)
ISSN: 2452-2562 (Online)

Indexed in: Scopus, EBSCO.

Down syndrome is a chromosomal disorder affecting more than 5.8 million individuals worldwide. Down syndrome can be viewed as a comple...[view complete introduction]
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Evolution of Monoaminergic System Degeneration in Down Syndrome and Alzheimer’s Disease

- Pp. 273-291 (19)

Cristy Phillips, Atoossa Fahimi, Fatemeh S. Mojabi and Ahmad Salehi


A multitude of neuropathological studies has established a robust link between Down syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease. Through massive projections to the entire cortex and hippocampus, the monoaminergic-systems exert a powerful modulatory effect on brain regions vitally important for cognition. Nevertheless, substantial evidence demonstrates these systems are inherently vulnerable to neurodegeneration, particularly in Down syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease. Accordingly, abnormalities in the structure and function of subcortical monoaminergic systems constitute a common characteristic of both disorders. Underlying these deficits are neuropathological changes in the locus coeruleus, ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra and raphe and tuberomamillary nuclei. Fortunately, preclinical and clinical studies suggest that pharmacotherapies targeting of these systems may provide symptomatic relief along with disease modifying effects in Down syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease.

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