Since the 1960s, numerous works on the subject of semiconductor device physics and modeling have appeared in print. Most of these were intended for use as textbooks at either the undergraduate or graduate levels, or both. Some were written for practicing engineers in the semiconductor industry, although a few, notably the one by Grove (1967), found its way into many classrooms as well as bookshelves in company offices. While device operational principles are based on solid-state physics and statistical mechanics, understanding of these principles for technology and product development (especially in the case of silicon integrated circuits) requires mastery of only a few fundamental concepts such as bandgap and Fermi level. Thus device physics can be learned by students in the classroom without a deep knowledge of quantum and statistical mechanics, and more important, by practicing engineers from a broad range of academic disciplines and training.
Dr. Kunihiro Suzuki has recognized the reality of teaching and learning transistor physics and modeling, based on his intimate working knowledge of the subject as a researcher with a prolific publication record in a leading industry laboratory for the past three decades. His recently published three-volume treatise on ion implantation is yet another testimony to his breadth and depth in the field of semiconductor device physics and technology.
While the overall organization of this book is not unique, the treatment of each topic spans from elementary concepts to advanced developments that are not present in most other similar publications. The book is suitable for experts as a reference, and for someone with a basic science background to learn a few things about this important technology, the recognition of which is increasingly supplanted by fascination with other non-science-based areas. Further, the book is especially useful for one without a strong device background but working on some aspects of 3-D silicon-based device technologies, as it provides the necessary prerequisite knowledge and nomenclature for understanding the operations of such devices.
I applaud the phenomenal effort put into the preparation of this book and look forward to using it for both teaching and as a reference. The dedication of Dr. Suzuki to his profession and his intense passion for device physics were apparent to me when we first met at Fujitsu Atsugi Laboratories in the late eighties, where he subsequently hosted one of my former graduate students (currently an executive at Intel) for one year working on short-channel effects. I expect such passion to be also apparent to readers from a broad range of educational and professional backgrounds, who, like Dr. Suzuki, wish to continue to contribute to device technology developments as far and as long as Moore’s Law remains relevant in some form.
Cary Y. Yang
Santa Clara, California
Continuous efforts to develop semiconductor devices enable us to realize significant development of IT (Information Technology) of these days. Bipolar transistors and MOSFETs are two distinguished devices that construct very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits, where the scaling of these devices realizes it’s high speed and high packing density with suppressing the increase of power consumption.
Models for these devices have been intensively developed. It is important to know the assumptions and approximations of these models to understand their limitations, which makes us to use the models properly, and give a chance to improve them. Many text books have been published on this subject. However, the full derivations of the advanced models are rarely described. The derivation processes for the advanced models include many subjects: one should learn how we should define the outline of the related phenomenon, set the tackling strategy to solve the problem, make some assumptions and approximations without losing accuracy, and learn many techniques to reach the final simple and clear expressions. Therefore, one can learn much from the derivation process of advanced models to become an expert in the field. Here, the derivation processes of models from fundamental ones to the advanced ones are shown step by step.
I treat the following subjects in this book.
Semiconductor devices are based on solid state physics and statistical mechanics. I briefly review the outline of these subjects. The concept of bandgap, energy density, probability function, mobility, carrier flux, Poisson equation, and current continuity equation are emerged, which are the starting equations to derive various models.
pn junction is then treated, which is a fundamental component for understanding characteristics of bipolar transistors and MOSFETs. The models for potential distribution and current-voltage characteristics are derived.
Bipolar transistors are treated next, where minority carries are injected into the base region. The characteristics of the device are significantly influenced whether the injected carrier concentration is higher than the base doping concentration or not. Models in low injection region are treated first. Uniformly doped devices are treated, and the models are then extended to the models with the arbitrarily doped devices.
High injection models are treated next, where the injected carrier concentration is not negligible with respect to the doping concentration. The injected carriers influence electric field in the base and collector/base depletion regions. Base doping modulation, Kirk effects, and emitter current crowding are significant phenomenon in high injection region.
MOSFET is a major device in modern VLSI. Models for long channel ones are treated first. Influence of velocity saturation, gate length modulation is described. Uniform channel with respect to vertical direction of the channel is first assumed and then it is extended to the ones for arbitrarily doped one. This non-uniform channel doping device overcomes the tradeoff between threshold voltage adjustment and short channel immunity. The short channel effects of the devices are further treated.
SOI devices and double-gate SOI, surrounded gate SOI devices are proposed and fabricated to overcome the limitation of the bulk MOSFETs. The characteristics of these devices are significantly different from those of the bulk MOSFETs since the depletion region is limited by SOI thickness. The related models for these devices including its short channel effects are described.
Finally, parasitic effect of MOS devices is treated: Silicide/Si substrate contact resistance, and gate fringe capacitance. The influence of impurity penetration through thin gate oxide to the threshold voltage variation is also studied.
I aim at the readers who are experts or non-experts in various fields associated with semiconductor devices, hope that various members can cover some knowledge to collaborate with one another. It is not easy for non-expert members to understand this book. However, I believe that one can do it with time and efforts and believe that it is worth for devotion.
Minatoku kaigan 1-11-1 Tokyo
“I am grateful to PERIODICUM BIOLOGORUM for allowing me to reprint my paper previously published in this journal”.
List of Contributors
Minatoku kaigan 1-11-1
“This book starts from a summary of semiconductor basics and a detailed treatment of the pn-junction. These topics have been explained in other books before, but it is a perfect warm-up to let the memory be refreshed by the authors concise language and numerous excellent figures.
In the main part, one is taken to a fascinating journey on analytic models for bipolar transistors and MOSFETs. Many device types and operation modes are presented. Analytic models are first derived for idealized, simple transistors and then elaborated further to catch practical aspects of real devices. The equations and parameters are used to clearly understand devices operation and characteristics. The book focusses on key features of established technology, but also shows selected novel aspects.
Numeric modelling (TCAD) is not the main focus of this book, but sometimes TCAD device simulation results are shown as a solid reference to demonstrate the validity of analytic models or to refine them. Throughout the book, the author presents numerous model equations. Scanning all equations, definitions, formulas, and derivations in this book may be exhausting, but those interested in model details will find abundant material illustrating successful model building from clear starting points. Readers who are less fond of following mathematical derivations in detail may need to omit some of them.
The joyful study of many relations between doping, geometry, and electrical characteristics sharpens the senses on what makes devices good, and lets the reader participate in the authors vast experience in transistor development.”
Dr. Christoph Zechner
Advanced TCAD modeling
Synopsys GmbH, Germany
"An interesting and rather comprehensive treatment of device physics, relevant to
bipolar transistors; the author’s careful and detailed work is indeed very impressive."
Prof. Robert Dutton,
School of Engineering,
"I like this book because important formulae related to semiconductors are carefully explained step by step which makes the book helpful for gaining a deep understanding of semiconductor physics (without skipping between formulae). The derivation of Fermi energy distribution presented in the text is impressive, along with information about electron up/down spin concepts which most other text books do not mention. This is OK up to now. However, future semiconductor device below 5nm node parameters will be changed to use or control the electron spin like MRAM or other spin logic devices. This book will prepare readers for understanding the working behind future device".
Prof. Robert DuttonKen-Ichi Goto
Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Ltd