New Trends in Biomarkers and Diseases Research: An Overview


by

Juan Antonio Vílchez, María Dolores Albaladejo-Otón

DOI: 10.2174/97816810849541170101
eISBN: 978-1-68108-495-4, 2017
ISBN: 978-1-68108-496-1



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Biomarkers are any measurable biochemical characteristics of an organism that reflect a particular physiological state. Biomarkers can...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Foreword

- Pp. i

Jordi Ordoñez-Llanos

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Preface

- Pp. ii

Juan Antonio Vílchez

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iiii-v (3)

Juan Antonio Vílchez

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Biomarkers in Pre-eclampsia: Is it Possible to Predict it?

- Pp. 1-22 (22)

Ana Martínez-Ruiz, Irene De-Miguel-Elízaga and Natalia Sancho- Rodríguez

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Metabolic Syndrome and Inflammation: Interrelated Aspects and Biomarkers Involved

- Pp. 23-56 (34)

Jose Pedregosa-Díaz, María Henar García-Lagunar and María Dolores Albaladejo-Otón

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Liver Fibrosis Biomarkers

- Pp. 57-79 (23)

Iria Cebreiros-López

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Iron Metabolism: New Biomarkers Implicated

- Pp. 80-120 (41)

Ana Hernando- Holgado and M. Pilar Gallego-Hernanz

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Equations of Glomerular Filtration Rate and Biomarkers to Evaluate Renal Function: A Perspective

- Pp. 121-152 (32)

Irene Gutiérrez-García and Juan Antonio Vílchez

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Biomarkers of Bone Turnover: Molecular Approaches and Clinical Relevance

- Pp. 153-188 (36)

Irene de Miguel-Elízaga, Ana Martínez-Ruíz, Natalia Sancho-Rodríguez and Miriam Martínez-Villanueva

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Vitamin D: from Bone Metabolism to New Applications

- Pp. 189-222 (34)

Marta M. Castañeda San Cirilo

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New Research About Biomarkers and Atrial Fibrillation

- Pp. 223-250 (28)

Diana Hernández-Romero, Vanessa Roldán, Mariano Valdés and Francisco Marín

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Current Trends in Biomarkers of Acute Coronary Syndrome

- Pp. 251-284 (34)

Carmen María Puche-Morenilla, Luis García de Guadiana Romualdo and Juan Antonio Vílchez

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Physiopathology of Thrombotic Diseases and Platelet Derived Biomarkers

- Pp. 285-308 (24)

Silvia Montoro- García and Sara María Martínez-Sánchez

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Importance of Biomarkers in Heart Failure: Classic and New Aspects

- Pp. 309-340 (32)

Juan Antonio Vílchez, Pablo Perez-Cañadas, Francisco Marín and Jordi Ordóñez-Llanos

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Emerging Biomarkers in Peripheral Artery Disease

- Pp. 341-370 (30)



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Early Neonatal Sepsis Biomarkers

- Pp. 371-396 (26)

Natalia Sancho-Rodríguez, Marta Sancho-Rodríguez, Irene De-Migue-Elízaga and Ana Martínez-Ruiz

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Sepsis: Traditional and Emergent Biomarkers for Diagnosis and Prognosis

- Pp. 397-435 (39)

Luis García de Guadiana-Romualdo, Patricia Esteban-Torrella and María Dolores Albaladejo-Otón

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Biomarkers in Saliva as a Tool for Health Diagnosis

- Pp. 436-468 (33)

Ana M. Moreno-Fuentes and Carmen Nieto-Sánchez

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Endocrine Disruptors: What Do We Know about the Effects and Risk Factors in Humans?

- Pp. 469-504 (36)

Africa de Béjar-Almira, Alice Charlotte Viney and Marta M. Castañeda San Cirilo

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Monitoring of Monoclonal Antibodies, A New Window in the Use of Biomarkers in Pharmacology

- Pp. 505-527 (23)

Enrique Jiménez-Santos, Iris Muñoz-García, Maria S García-Simón, Jose Pedregosa-Díaz and Juan Antonio Vílchez

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Subject Index

- Pp. 528-541 (14)

Juan Antonio Vílchez

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Foreword

The concept of biomarker applies to any biological characteristic that can be objectively measured and evaluated to improve the clinical ability to evaluate different aspects of health or disease status.

Referring to a disease, a biomarker can help to evaluate the susceptibility of developing a disease in which case the biomarker is a risk factor; to recognize its existence both in the subclinical (screening biomarker) or clinical (diagnostic biomarker) stage, to control the progression or regression (staging biomarker), to prognoses the disease (prognostic biomarker) or its response to therapy (monitoring biomarker). Furthermore, a biomarker could be the measure of a biological variable, such as blood pressure, the result of a scanning technique as an X-ray or a biological variable measured in the clinical laboratory. And it is in this latter type of variables where the term of biomarker is more widely applied.

The literature is full of new biomarkers which are claimed to add value to clinical practice and, hence to be a part of the clinical laboratory portfolio. The aim of the current book is to summarize the existing evidence on the role that classical and some novel biomarkers can play in the most prevalent diseases.

Jordi Ordoñez-Llanos, MD, Ph.D.
Senior Consultant, Hospital de Sant Pau. Professor Clinical Biochemistry
IIB-Sant Pau Biomedical Research Institute, Hospital Santa Creu i Sant Pau and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Universitat Autònoma, Barcelona,
Spain


Preface

Biomarkers, whether measured in peripheral fluids (blood, serum or urine) may improve our knowledge of the pathophysiology of many diseases. Moreover, and most importantly, biomarkers could help in the assessment of diagnosis, prognosis and surviving. The aim of this book was to summarize published data about new emerging and classic biomarkers studied in prevalent diseases, with focus on data from clinical trials and large community based cohorts.

The use of biomarkers has become a fundamental practice in medicine, involving significantly greater scope of laboratory medicine. Biomarkers are measurable characteristics of an organism reflecting a particular physiological state. In medicine, biomarkers considered as compounds isolated from serum, urine, or other fluids, can be used as indicators of the presence or severity of a particular disease state.

Biomarkers can take many different forms including particular proteins or peptides, antibodies, cell types, metabolites, hormones, enzyme levels, compounds related to genomics, etc. A biomarker can also be a substance introduced into a patient to assess the internal organ systems role/function. Moreover, biomarkers facilitate the adaptation of treatment to the specific needs of each patient, which is known as personalized medicine. In this way, using biomarkers to monitor a patient's reaction to a particular drug, it is possible to determine whether a treatment is effective for an individual or has to be changed due to toxic adverse effects. Also, this aspect could lead to their convenient use in terms of cost-efficiency. Biomarkers are also important to manage new disease therapies through the use of biomarkers of progression to delineate the development and course of a disease, thus focusing on the risk or progression of a disease or with the susceptibility of a disease to a given treatment.

Nowadays, the way to diagnose general pathologies and diseases has changed importantly due to the development of high throughput technologies, such as microarrays or large-scale studies of proteins (proteomics, genomics, metabolomics etc). These investigations have allowed the discovery of new biomarkers of diseases. Also, the use of established biomarkers to other aspects in the progression of diseases, as the inclusion of biomarkers in many stratification schemes of severity to stratify the risk in patient’s state.

A single biomarker is often inconclusive or ambiguous because diseases with very different pathophysiological mechanisms can affect the same molecule or marker. Therefore, it is crucial to study and manage patterns of biomarkers with respect to disease state, prognosis and treatment. This complex scenario is the main focus of this book. We tried to summarize, relating to principal groups of pathologies with respect to blood biomarkers, a compilation of the present and upcoming knowledge about biomarkers and diseases. The chapters cover a wide number of areas including those in which biomarkers could mainly add clear information about the illness. This book includes, reviews about sepsis, nutrition, liver state, cancer, cardiology, bone metabolism, etc. The chapters are written by experts and specialists in general laboratory medicine.

Dr. Juan Antonio Vílchez
Clinical Analysis Department,
Santa Lucía General University Hospital,
Cartagena,
Spain


List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Juan Antonio Vílchez


María Dolores Albaladejo-Otón




Contributor(s):
Ana M. Moreno-Fuentes, BSc
Clinical Analysis Department
Santa Lucía General University Hospital
Cartagena, Murcia
Spain


Africa de Béjar-Almira, BSc
Clinical Analysis Department
Santa Lucia General University Hospital
Cartagena
Spain


Anna Hernández-Aguilera, MSc
Unitat de Recerca Biomèdica, and Laboratori de Referència SUD
Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Institut d'Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain Carrer Sant Llorenç 21, 43201-
Reus
Spain


Ana Martínez-Ruiz, Pharm, PhD
Clinical Analysis Department
Reina Sofia General University Hospital
Murcia
Spain


Ana Hernando-Holgado, Pharm
Clinical Analysis Department
Santa Lucia General University Hospital
Cartagena
Spain


Alice Charlotte Viney, Pharm
Pharmacy Department
Santa Lucia General University Hospital
Cartagena
Spain


Carmen Nieto-Sánchez, Pharm. PhD
Clinical Analysis Department
Santa Lucía General University Hospital
Cartagena, Murcia
Spain


Carmen María Puche-Morenilla, PhD
Clinical Analysis Department
Clinical University Hospital Virgen de la Arrixaca
Murcia
Spain


Diana Hernández-Romero, PhD
Department of Cardiology
Virgen de la Arrixaca Clinic University Hospital Instituto de Investigación Biomédica-Virgen de la Arrixaca
Murcia
Spain


Enrique Jiménez-Santos, Chem
Clinical Analysis Department
Santa Lucia General University Hospital
Cartagena
Spain


Francisco Marín, PhD
Department of Cardiology
. Virgen de la Arrixaca Clinic University Hospital, Murcia, Spain. Instituto de Investigación Biomédica-Virgen de la Arrixaca. IMIB-Arrixaca
Murcia
Spain


Iria Cebreiros-López, Pharm, PhD
Clinical Analysis Department
Clinical University Hospital Virgen de la Arrixaca
Murcia
Spain


Irene De Miguel-Elízaga, BSc
Clinical Analysis Department Unilabs Laboratory
Torrevieja Salud Hospital
Alicante
Spain


Isabel Fort-Gallifa, MSc
Unitat de Recerca Biomèdica, and Laboratori de Referència SUD
Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Institut d'Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain Carrer Sant Llorenç 21, 43201-
Reus
Spain


Irene Gutiérrez-García, BSc
Clinical Analysis Department
Santa Lucia General University Hospital
Cartagena
Spain


Juan Antonio Vílchez, Pharm, PhD
Clinical Analysis Department
Santa Lucía General University Hospital
Murcia
Spain


Jordi Ordóñez-Llanos, MD, PhD
IIB-Sant Pau Biomedical Research Institute
, Hospital Santa Creu i Sant Pau and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Universitat Autònoma
Barcelona
Spain


Jorge Joven, MSc
Unitat de Recerca Biomèdica, and Laboratori de Referència SUD
Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Institut d'Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain Carrer Sant Llorenç 21, 43201-
Reus
Spain


Jordi Camps, PhD
Unitat de Recerca Biomèdica, and Laboratori de Referència SUD
Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Institut d'Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain Carrer Sant Llorenç 21, 43201-
Reus
Spain


Jose Pedregosa-Díaz, Chem
Clinical Analysis Department
Santa Lucia General University Hospital
Cartagena
Spain


Luis García de Guadiana-Romualdo, Pharm
Clinical Analysis Department
Santa Lucia General University Hospital
Cartagena
Spain


Natalia Sancho-Rodríguez, Pharm, PhD
Santa Lucía
General University Hospital, Cartagena
Murcia
Spain


Marta Sancho-Rodríguez, Pharm
Pharmaceutical
Production Team in MSD, Oss
The
Netherlands


María Dolores Albaladejo-Otón, PhD
Clinical Analysis Department
Santa Lucia General University Hospital
Cartagena
Spain


María Henar García-Lagunar, Pharm
Pharmacy Department
Santa Lucia General University Hospital
Cartagena
Spain


M. Pilar Gallego-Hernanz, MD, PhD
Hématologie Oncologique et Thérapie cellulaire
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Poitiers
France


Miriam Martínez-Villanueva, Pharm, PhD
Clinical Analysis Department
Virgen de la Arrixaca Clinic University Hospital
Murcia
Spain


Marta M. Castañeda San Cirilo, PhD
Clinical Analysis Department
Santa Lucia General University Hospital
Cartagena
Spain


Maria S García-Simón, Pharm
Pharmacy Department
Santa Lucia General University Hospital
Cartagena
Spain


Mariano Valdés, MD, PhD
Department of Cardiology
Virgen de la Arrixaca Clinic University Hospital Instituto de Investigación Biomédica-Virgen de la Arrixaca
Murcia
Spain


Patricia Esteban-Torrella, Pharm
Clinical Analysis Department
Santa Lucia General University Hospital
Cartagena
Spain


Pablo Perez-Cañadas, Pharm
Clinical Analysis Department
Santa Lucía General University Hospital
Murcia
Spain


Silvia Montoro-García, PhD
Department of Cardiovascular Risk
Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia (UCAM), Campus de los Jerónimos, Guadalupe
Murcia
Spain


Sara María Sánchez-Martínez, Pharm
Department of Cardiovascular Risk
Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia (UCAM), Campus de los Jerónimos, Guadalupe
Murcia
Spain


Vanessa Roldán, PhD
Department of Hematology
Morales Meseguer University Hospital Instituto de Investigación Biomédica-Virgen de la Arrixaca
Murcia
Spain


Vicente Martín-Paredero, MSc
Unitat de Recerca Biomèdica, and Laboratori de Referència SUD
Hospital Universitari Sant Joan, Institut d'Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain Carrer Sant Llorenç 21, 43201-
Reus
Spain




Reviews

Review 1

Book Review: New Trends in Biomarkers and Disease Research: An Overview

"The authors of this book, through their joint works, have managed to rub out the increasingly thin line of separation between the clinic and the diagnosis, which makes it a very useful reference both for students of health sciences and for specialists in the same field. For this reason, I recommend it as a reference and consultation book.”

Pedro Martínez-Hernandez PhD,
Former Head
Clinical Laboratory of the University Clinic Hospital Virgen de la Arrixaca of Murcia Academic Numerary
Royal Academica of Medicine and Surgery of Murcia and the Academy of Pharmacy of Murcia,
Spain



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