Microalgae as a Source of Bioenergy: Products, Processes and Economics

Book Series: Recent Advances in Renewable Energy

Volume 1

by

José Carlos Magalhães Pires

DOI: 10.2174/97816810852271170101
eISBN: 978-1-68108-522-7, 2017
ISBN: 978-1-68108-523-4
ISSN: 2543-2389 (Print)
ISSN: 2543-2397 (Online)



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Microalgae could play an important role in the achievement of sustainability goals related to the generation of renewable energy and g...[view complete introduction]

Table of Contents

Preface

- Pp. i-ii (2)

José Carlos Magalhães Pires

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List of Contributors

- Pp. iii-v (3)

José Carlos Magalhães Pires

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Perspectives of Energy Production from Microalgae: The Biodiesel and Cogeneration Cases

- Pp. 1-29 (29)

Carlos A. Cardona, Daniela Parra and Sebastián Serna

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Energetic Products from Microalgae: Bioethanol

- Pp. 30-52 (23)

Choon Gek Khoo, Man Kee Lam and Keat Teong Lee

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Bioethanol Production Process

- Pp. 53-66 (14)

Fabiana Regina Xavier Batista, Juliana de Souza Ferreira and Vicelma Luiz Cardoso

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Methane Production Process for Microalgae Conversion

- Pp. 67-97 (31)

Martin Pablo Caporgno, Esther Torrens and Christophe Bengoa

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Microalgae, Taking Over the Role in the Hydrogen Future

- Pp. 98-149 (52)

Suphi S. Oncel

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Algal Production Platforms

- Pp. 150-172 (23)

Alessandro Marco Lizzul and Aitor Lekuona-Amundarain

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Use of Flue Gas as Carbon Source

- Pp. 173-201 (29)

Jorge Alberto V. Costa, Adriano S. A. Henrard, Luiza Moraes, Etiele G. Morais, Igor S. Gonçalves and Michele G. Morais

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Harvesting, Thickening and Dewatering Processes

- Pp. 202-223 (22)

Dries Vandamme

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Oil Extraction Processes in Microalgae

- Pp. 224-258 (35)

Mengyue Gong, Yulin Hu, Shreyas Yedahalli and Amarjeet Bassi

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Research and Deployment of Renewable Bioenergy Production from Microalgae

- Pp. 259-277 (19)

Lieve M.L. Laurens and Melodie Chen-Glasser

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Current Production of Microalgae at Industrial Scale

- Pp. 278-296 (19)

Luis G. Ramírez-Mérida, Leila Queiroz Zepka and Eduardo Jacob-Lopes

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Environmental Applications of Microalgae: CO<sub>2</sub> Capture and Nutrient Recycling

- Pp. 297-314 (18)

Meng Wang

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Maximising Value: The Bio-Refinery Concept

- Pp. 315-331 (17)

Darren L. Oatley-Radcliffe, Thea Ekins-Coward and Robert W. Lovitt

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Energy and Economic Challenges in the Growth and Harvesting of Microalgae. The Chlorella vulgaris Case

- Pp. 332-351 (20)

Daissy Lorena Restrepo Serna, Juan Carlos Higuita Vásquez and Carlos Ariel Cardona Alzate

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Techno-economics of a Microalgal Route to Green Diesel

- Pp. 352-390 (39)

Lin Zhou, James L. Manganaro and Adeniyi Lawal

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Greenhouse Gas Balances of Microalgal Biofuels

- Pp. 391-401 (11)

Lucas Reijnders

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Triple Bottom Line Assessment of Algae Bio-crude Production

- Pp. 402-413 (12)

Arunima Malik

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Subject Index

- Pp. 414-426 (13)

José Carlos Magalhães Pires

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Preface

The book “Microalgae as a Source of Bioenergy: Products, Processes and Economics” presents recent advances in biofuel production with microalgae. It is composed of 17 well written chapters by leading researchers in this field.

European Union (EU) defined targets for each Member State regarding climate and energy. Microalgae are considered a promising and sustainable source of energy, due to their biomass productivity and ability to capture CO2. Several research studies were performed and new procedures to reduce the biomass production cost were developed. In this context, the proposed book have the contributions of relevant researchers in microalgal research area, focusing on the energy product yields, process developments and economics.

Biodiesel is one of the most studied biofuels, which can be produced by several raw materials. Microalgal biodiesel is the third generation biofuel and it is considered the most sustainable route for the production of this renewable form of energy. Microalgae present high areal productivities and their production does not compete with food market. Besides the biodiesel production with extracted oil, the residual biomass can be used for other energetic applications, reducing the cost of each type of produced energy. Chapter 1 presents the integration of biodiesel production and cogeneration and concludes that microalgae is an economic viable energy solution, if the biorefinery concept is applied, taking part from several products that microalgae can offer. Chapter 2 presents the potential of microalgae for bioethanol production, focusing on cultivation strategies to enhance carbohydrate productivity (which is easier to break down to simple reducing sugar), biomass pre-treatment methods, and hydrolysis and fermentation process. Chapter 3 presents different routes to produce bioethanol and presents a review of the research works about bioethanol production from algae. Chapter 4 introduces the basic principles of anaerobic digestion (biogas production), particularly when using microalgae as substrate. The influence of the most important operating parameters is also described. Biohydrogen is the last focused biofuel product. Chapter 5 shows the recent progresses regarding microalgal cellular mechanisms and production processes. As biofuel should present a lower price, several strategies should be implemented to reduce the production costs. Chapter 6 shows the main characteristics of the most used configurations of photobioreactors. Chapter 7 presents CO2 biofixation from industrial flue gases by microalgae, describing the microalgal metabolism. The use of CO2 from this source has dual benefit: (i) reduction of biomass production cost; and (ii) mitigation of industrial emissions of CO2, which is one of the most important greenhouse gas. Harvesting, thickening and dewatering processes represent a significant cost in the production of microalgal biomass. Chapter 8 gives an overview of the related technologies, presenting their advantages. Chapter 9 summarizes recent developments in microalgal oil extraction processes, including drying methods, cell disruption methods, conventional or supercritical solvent extraction methods, and recent approaches for direct biodiesel production.

Concerning the current production and economics of microalgal production, Chapter 10 places international energy policy in the context of the current and projected energy landscape. It gives an overview of the global and commercially installed infrastructure. Some important research projects are also presented. Chapter 11 presents a current view of the commercial production of microalgae cultivation at a large scale worldwide. It also presents the main variables that influence microalgal cultures and compares different types of photobioreactors. Chapter 12 describes the environmental applications of microalgae: CO2 capture and nutrient recycling. Mechanisms of assimilation of nitrogen and phosphorus are discussed in this chapter. Configurations of photobioreactors are compared in terms of wastewater treatment enhancement (and downstream processes) and improving mass transfer of CO2 from the gaseous stream to the culture. Chapter 13 presents a wide range of products obtained from microalgal biomass (biorefinery context) that can enhance the economic viability of biofuel production. Chapter 14 performs a techno-economic assessment of microalgal oil production. Process modelling was performed through simulation software Aspen Plus. Chapter 15 reviews biofuel production from different feedstocks, focusing on the techno-economic challenges. Sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the economic parameters are the sales price was highly dependent on algae doubling time. Chapter 16 presents a life cycle assessment of the greenhouse gases of microalgal biofuels. Chapter 17 shows the results of the triple bottom line (for sustainability evaluation) assessment of algal bio-crude production. The considered stages in the analysis are the cultivation of algae, extraction of bio-crude and transport of bio-crude to a refinery. A region of Australia was selected for algae production. The results show that algae bio-crude production is more sustainable than crude oil production.

I would like to thank all the authors for their efforts in writing such excellent chapters. I also acknowledge the entire team of Bentham Science Publishers, particularly Ms. Fariya Zulfiqar (Assistant Manager Publications) due to the important orientations at different stages in the publication of the book. I am confident that this book will attract the attention of researchers and professionals of microalgal biofuel production.

José Carlos Magalhães Pires
Faculty of Engineering
University of Porto
Porto
Portugal

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
José Carlos Magalhães Pires
Faculty of Engineering
Porto
Portugal




Contributor(s):
Adeniyi Lawal
Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Stevens Institute of Technology
Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic 9500 Euclid Ave
Hoboken, NJ 07030
United States


Adriano S.A. Henrard
Laboratory of Microbiology and Biochemistry
College of Chemistry and Food Engineering, Federal University of Rio Grande
P.O. Box 474, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900 Rio Grande, RS
Brazil


Aitor Lekuona-Amundarain
Tecnalia Research and Innovation, Leonardo Da Vinci 11
E-01510, Miñano
(Araba)
Spain


Alessandro Marco Lizzul
Department of Environmental Engineering
University College London
Gower Street, WC1E 6BT, London
United Kingdom


Amarjeet Bassi
Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering
Western University
London ON N6A 5B9
Canada


Arunima Malik
ISA, School of Physics A28
The University of Sydney
NSW 2006, Sydney
Australia


Carlos A. Cardona
Group of Chemical, Catalytic and Biotechnological Processes, Institute of Biotechnology and Agroindustry. Department of Chemical Engineering
Universidad Nacional de Colombia – Sede Manizales. Cra. 27 No. 64-60
Manizales
Colombia


Choon Gek Khoo
School of Chemical Engineering
Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal
Pulau Pinang
Malaysia


Christophe Bengoa
Departament d'Enginyeria Química
Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans
26, 43007 Tarragona
Spain


Daissy Lorena Restrepo Serna
Instituto de Biotecnología y Agroindustria, Departamento de Ingeniería Química
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Manizales campus
Manizales
Colombia


Daniela Parra
Group of Chemical, Catalytic and Biotechnological Processes. Institute of Biotechnology and Agroindustry. Department of Chemical Engineering
Universidad Nacional de Colombia – Sede Manizales. Cra. 27 No. 64-60
Manizales
Colombia


Darren L. Oatley-Radcliffe
Centre for Water Advanced Technologies and Environmental Research (CWATER)
College of Engineering, Swansea University, Fabian Way, Swansea SA1 8EN, UK; Membranology Ltd., Charter Court, Phoenix Way, Enterprise Park
Swansea, SA79FS
UK


Dries Vandamme
KU Leuven Campus Kulak, Laboratory for Aquatic Biology
E. Sabbelaan 53
8500 Kortrijk
Belgium


Eduardo Jacob-Lopes
Food Science and Technology Department
Federal University of Santa Maria, UFSM, Roraima Avenue 1000, 97105-900
Santa Maria, RS
Brazil


Esther Torrens
Departament d'Enginyeria Química
Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans, 26
43007 Tarragona
Spain


Etiele G. Morais
Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Food Engineering
Federal University of Rio Grande, P.O. Box 474, Av. Itália km 8
96203-900 Rio Grande, RS
Brazil


Fabiana Regina Xavier Batista
School of Chemical Engineering
Federal University of Uberlandia
Uberlandia/MG
Brazil


Igor S. Gonçalves
Laboratory of Microbiology and Biochemistry, College of Chemistry and Food Engineering
Federal University of Rio Grande, P.O. Box 474, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900 Rio Grande
RS
Brazil


James L. Manganaro
Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science
Stevens Institute of Technology
Hoboken, NJ 07030
United States


Jorge Alberto V. Costa
Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Food Engineering
Federal University of Rio Grande, P.O. Box 474, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900 Rio Grande
RS
Brazil


Juan Carlos Higuita Vásquez
Instituto de Biotecnología y Agroindustria, Departamento de Ingeniería Química
Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Manizales campus
Manizales
Colombia


Juliana de Souza Ferreira
School of Chemical Engineering
Federal University of Uberlandia
Uberlandia/MG
Brazil


Keat Teong Lee
School of Chemical Engineering
Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal
Pulau Pinang
Malaysia


Leila Queiroz Zepka
Food Science and Technology Department
Federal University of Santa Maria, UFSM, Roraima Avenue 1000, 97105-900
Santa Maria, RS
Brazil


Lieve M.L. Laurens
National Bioenergy Center
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Golden
CO 80401, USA


Lin Zhou
Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science
Stevens Institute of Technology
Hoboken, NJ 07030
United States


Lucas Reijnders
IBED
University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, PO box 94248
10 GE Amsterdam
the Netherlands


Luis G. Ramírez-Mérida
Applied Biotechnology Center, Department of Biology
University of Carabobo, Universidad Avenue, 2002, Valencia
Edo. Carabobo
Venezuela


Luiza Moraes
Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Food Engineering
Federal University of Rio Grande, P.O. Box 474, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900 Rio Grande
RS
Brazil


Man Kee Lam
Chemical Engineering Department
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 32610 Bandar Seri Iskandar
Perak
Malaysia


Martin Pablo Caporgno
Departament d'Enginyeria Química
Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans, 26
43007 Tarragona
Spain


Melodie Chen-Glasser
National Bioenergy Center
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Golden
CO 80401, USA


Meng Wang
Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of South Florida
Tampa
USA


Mengyue Gong
Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering
Western University
London ON N6A 5B9
Canada


Michele G. Morais
Laboratory of Microbiology and Biochemistry, College of Chemistry and Food Engineering
Federal University of Rio Grande, P.O. Box 474, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900 Rio Grande
RS
Brazil


Robert W. Lovitt
Centre for Water Advanced Technologies and Environmental Research (CWATER), College of Engineering
Swansea University, Fabian Way
Swansea SA1 8EN
UK
/
Membranology Ltd., Charter Court
Phoenix Way, Enterprise Park
Swansea, SA79FS
UK


Sebastián Serna
Group of Chemical, Catalytic and Biotechnological Processes, Institute of Biotechnology and Agroindustry. Department of Chemical Engineering
Universidad Nacional de Colombia – Sede Manizales. Cra. 27 No. 64-60
Manizales
Colombia


Shreyas Yedahalli
Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering
Western University
London ON N6A 5B9
Canada


Suphi S. Oncel
Department of Bioengineering
Engineering Faculty, Ege University
Izmir
Turkey


Thea Ekins-Coward
Centre for Water Advanced Technologies and Environmental Research (CWATER), College of Engineering
Swansea University, Fabian Way
Swansea SA1 8EN
UK


Vicelma Luiz Cardoso
School of Chemical Engineering
Federal University of Uberlandia
Uberlandia/MG
Brazil


Yulin Hu
Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering
Western University
London ON N6A 5B9
Canada




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