Evaluation of Environmental Contaminants and Natural Products: A Human Health Perspective

by

Ashita Sharma, Manish Kumar, Satwinderjeet Kaur, Avinash Kaur Nagpal

DOI: 10.2174/97898114109631190101
eISBN: 978-981-14-1096-3, 2019
ISBN: 978-981-14-1095-6



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Unbridled urbanization and development of natural land resources has led to the degradation of our surrounding environment. The ai...[view complete introduction]
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Table of Contents

Preface

- Pp. i-ii (2)
Ashita Sharma and Manish Kumar
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Foreword

- Pp. iii
Renu Wadhwa
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List of Contributors

- Pp. vi-v (2)
Ashita Sharma and Manish Kumar
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Environmental Contaminants: Sources and Effects

- Pp. 1-23 (23)
Savita, Vivek Chopra and Anuradha Sharma
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Environmental Pollutants and Risk of Cancer

- Pp. 24-46 (23)
Indranil Chattopadhyay
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Toxicity of Environmental Contaminants: Use of Battery of Standard Biological Assays

- Pp. 47-64 (18)
Tajinder Kaur, Sneh Rajput, Gurpreet Kaur, Renu Bhardwaj and Saroj Arora
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Allium cepa Root Chromosomal Aberration Assay: A Tool to Assess Genotoxicity of Environmental Contaminants

- Pp. 65-93 (29)
Mandeep Kaur, Ashita Sharma, Rajneet Kour Soodan, Vanita Chahal, Vaneet Kumar, Jatinder Kaur Katnoria and Avinash Kaur Nagpal
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Pesticides: Problems and Remedial Measures

- Pp. 94-115 (22)
Sonal Yadav and Satyawati Sharma
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Biphenyls: Health Impacts and Toxicity Evaluation

- Pp. 116-137 (22)
Sakshi Sharma, Avinash Kaur Nagpal and Inderpreet Kaur
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Actinomycete Enabled Remediation Strategies: Potential Tool for Pollutant Removal from Diverse Niches

- Pp. 138-159 (22)
Anu Kalia, Sukhjinder Kaur and Madhurama Gangwar
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Role of Phytoconstituents in Modulating Xenobiotic Metabolism

- Pp. 160-192 (33)
Harsimran Kaur, Sandeep Kaur, Satwinderjeet Kaur and Paramjeet Kaur
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Potential Health Benefits of Nutraceuticals for Human Health

- Pp. 193-209 (17)
Sandeep Kaur, Manish Kumar, Kritika Pandit, Ajay Kumar and Satwinderjeet Kaur
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Caspases and Phytochemicals: An Important Link in Cancer Chemoprevention

- Pp. 210-243 (34)
Manish Kumar, Sandeep Kaur, Varinder Kaur and Satwinderjeet Kaur
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Understanding Molecular Diagnosis in Cancer

- Pp. 244-264 (21)
Trupti N. Patel and Priyanjali Bhattacharya
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Subject Index

- Pp. 265-276 (12)
Ashita Sharma and Manish Kumar
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Foreword

Environmental contaminants are constantly increasing in the environment due to the ill planned economic development. Increase in degenerative diseases as a result of continuous exposure to environmental contaminants is posing a serious threat to mankind. While living in such an environment, it has become an absolute necessity to find ways to enhance the protective nature of human metabolic response against the exposure to carcinogens. Various phytochemicals were considered as nectar against many degenerative diseases in ancient civilizations. Modern science is also making efforts to understand the protective effects of natural products. There is a need to compile the information about pollutants which can damage mankind and the protectants to safeguard our existence. The book is a unique and well-arranged compilation of these important aspects.

The first section of the book covers various sources and effects of emerging contaminants in our ambient environment. Environmental contaminants are associated with an increase in incidences of various types of cancers. The chapter entitled “Environmental risk and cancer” covers all such pollutants in detail. Due to the emergence of various contaminants, it has also become important for scientific community to assess the toxicity of various chemical agents present in the environment. Next chapters of the book suggest various plant and bacterial bioassays which could be used to analyze the toxic potential. Injudicious urbanization and economic development have increased the concentrations of some toxins into the environment which could have been prevented if judiciously used; pesticides and biphenyls are perfect examples. In the second section, editors have tried to compile the information about various natural products and their protective effects against carcinogenic potential of environmental contaminants. The metabolic link between plant products and cancer chemoprevention is also summarized well in one of the chapters in the book. The volume of Environmental Contaminants and Natural Products is a concise and well-organized handbook for researchers working in the field.



Renu Wadhwa
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science & Technology (AIST)
Tsukuba Science City - 305 8565
Japan

Preface

In the last century, soaring economic developments had led to mushrooming of industries and ill planned urbanization. The plethora of byproducts and/or waste products of industrialization acted as environmental contaminants in the biosphere. Currently, addition of some xenobiotics to our environment and increase in concentration of existing natural elements in biosphere has resulted in the deterioration of ecosystem, alterations in biogeochemical cycles, degradation of gene pool thus, affecting the health of flora and fauna existing on the earth. The health effects associated with exposure to these contaminants include various degenerative diseases including cancer. Increase in cancer incidences and deterioration of human health have led to the awakening of scientific community and efforts are being made to formulate policies and framework associated with environmental contaminants.

The present book has been conceptualized keeping all of the above issues into consideration. The book is broadly divided into two sections; Section A covers the toxic effects of environmental contaminants on human health, tools to analyze the pollutants and ways to mitigate them. Section B focuses on the protective effects of various plant products against the toxicity induced by environmental pollutants. Section A was mainly edited by Dr. Ashita Sharma while the main editor for Section B was Dr. Manish Kumar, concerning their respective areas of expertise.

In the first chapter of the book, Savita et al. have summarized various pollutants that have been added to the environment by anthropogenic activities. The chapter also summarizes various effects of the pollutants on flora, fauna and environment. The Second chapter of our book by Chattopadhyay summarizes various carcinogenic pollutants in our ambient environment and their mechanism of action. The chapter holds a descriptive approach to the carcinogens and their effects. The next two chapters of the book by Kaur T. et al. and Kaur M. et al. focus on various tools which help in evaluating the toxicity of pollutants so as to identify various carcinogenic and/or toxic chemicals in our surroundings. These chapters have carefully summarized the common techniques adopted for the screening of pollutants. Pollutants like pesticides and biphenyls, pertaining to their wide application and severe toxic effects, have gained attention of the scientists and researchers throughout the world. The advent of green revolution and the demand of increased food production have resulted in injudicious use of agrochemicals, which may have increased the crop production but at the same time have caused many toxic effects to the consumers. Pesticides are one of most common contaminants which effect large section of population, hence these holds importance over the other pollutants. So, in the next chapter, Yadav and Sharma throw light on the toxic effects of pesticides on human population. Biphenyls are the emerging pollutants which have increased in biosphere due to various anthropogenic reasons. The increase in urbanization and ill planned disposal has made this pollutant spread drastically in the ambient environment. The Chapter sixth of the book by Sharma et al. reflects on various sources and effects of biphenyls. Also, the chapters have tried to provide the remediation strategies for both the pollutants. Before the pollutant reaches to the human beings and showcase the effects, it can be curbed in the environment. The next chapter by Kalia and co-workers, thus focuses on the emerging technology which identifies an emerging strategy to mitigate the pollutant from environment employing unique group of microorganisms called Actinomycetes.

Since ancient times, the natural phytochemicals in plants are known to exhibit medicinal properties. Thus, the power of these phytoconstituents was also evaluated against the deadly contaminants and in many cases these phytochemicals proved to be the curative nectars. The next section of the book throws light on protective benefits of plants products against degenerative diseases including cancer. The subsequent chapters by Kaur P. et al. and Kaur S. et al. cover modulatory and protective effects of plants products and nutraceuticals. The second last chapter of book by Kumar et al., establishes an important link between caspases and plant products in cancer chemoprevention. In the last chapter, Patel and Bhattacharya have focused on important diagnostic tools related to cancer.

This version is a concise handbook for researchers and academicians to understand the issues related to various environmental toxins and protective agents which can safeguard gene pool against these toxins.

Ashita Sharma
Department of Civil Engineering,
Chandigarh University, Gharuan,
Mohali,
India, 140413

&

Manish Kumar
Department of Biology,
S.D. College Barnala,
Punjab,
India 148101

List of Contributors

Editor(s):
Ashita Sharma


Manish Kumar


Satwinderjeet Kaur


Avinash Kaur Nagpal




Contributor(s):
Mr. Ajay Kumar
is currently working as Research Scholar in the Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences
Guru Nanak Dev University
Amritsar
India. He is pursuing his Ph.D. on cancer chemopreventive potential of natural products.


Dr. Anu Kalia
is presently working as an Assistant Professor in Department of Soil Science
College of Agriculture, Punjab Agricultural University
Ludhiana
Punjab
India.


Dr. Anuradha Sharma
is an Associate Professor, Botany Department
Hindu College, University of Delhi
New Delhi.
She works in the area of cell biology.


Dr. Ashita Sharma
has completed Ph.D. from Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences
Guru Nanak Dev University
Amritsar
Punjab,
India. Her areas of specialization are genotoxicity studies, heavy metal analysis, environmental monitoring and bioremediation. At present she is working as Assistant Professor at Chandigarh University.


Dr. Avinash Kaur Nagpal
Professor at Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences
Guru Nanak Dev University
Amritsar
Punjab,
India. Her areas of specialization are antigenotoxic studies, plant tissue culture, plant databases and environmental monitoring.


Dr. Gurpreet Kaur
is an Assistant Professor, Crop Protection Division, Department of Agriculture
Khalsa College
Amritsar
India. She is working in the field of Mycology and Plant Pathology.


Dr. Harsimran Kaur
is presently working as Assistant Professor in PG department of Agriculture
in Khalsa College
Amritsar
India. She has expertise in the field of plant tissue culture and natural plant products.


Dr. Inderpreet Kaur
is presently working as an Assistant Professor at Department of Chemistry
Centre for Advanced Studies, Guru Nanak Dev University
Amritsar
Punjab,
India. Her areas of specialization are electrochemistry, sensors, surface modified adsorbents, water analysis, heavy metal analysis and environmental monitoring.


Dr. Indranil Chattopadhyay
is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Life Sciences
Central University of Tamil Nadu
India. His areas of research expertise are cancer genetics, genomics and environmental mutagenesis.


Dr. Jatinder Kaur Katnoria
is currently working as an Associate Professor at Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences
Guru Nanak Dev University
Amritsar
Punjab,
India. Her areas of specialization are environmental toxicology, heavy metal analysis and environmental monitoring.


Ms. Kritika Pandit
is currently working as Research Scholar in the Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences
Guru Nanak Dev University
Amritsar
India. She is pursuing her Ph.D. on cancer chemopreventive potential of natural products.


Dr. Madhurama Gangwar
is Senior Microbiologist in the Department of Microbiology
College of Basic Sciences and Humanities, Punjab Agricultural University
India.


Ms. Mandeep Kaur
is a Research Scholar in Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences
Guru Nanak Dev University
Amritsar
Punjab,
India. Her areas of specialization are genotoxicity evaluation and environmental monitoring.


Dr. Manish Kumar
is currently working as an Assistant professor at Department of Biology
S.D. College Barnala, Punjab
India. His research activities are focused on evaluation of cancer chemopreventive properties viz. antioxidant, antigenotoxic, antimutagenic, COX-2 inhibitory and anticancer activities of medicinal plants.


Dr. Paramjeet Kaur
is currently working as an Assistant Professor in Botany at PG Department of Botany
Khalsa College-Amritsar
India. Her areas of research expertise are genetic toxicology and cancer chemoprevention.


Ms. Priyanjali Bhattacharya
is pursuing Ph.D. from Vellore
Institute of Technology, VIT
Vellore
India. She is currently working on research topic “Mutational Profiling of DNA Repair Genes in Hematologic Malignancies”.


Dr. Rajneet Kour Soodan
is Ph.D. from Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences
Guru Nanak Dev University
Amritsar
Punjab,
India. Her areas of specialization are environmental toxicology, plant and animal bioassays, and antioxidative enzyme analysis.


Dr. Renu Bhardwaj
is a Professor in the Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences
Guru Nanak Dev University
Amritsar
India. Her field of research includes plant stress physiology, plant metabolomics, chemical ecology and ecophysiology, phytoremediation and plant growth regulation.


Ms. Sakshi Sharma
is a Research Scholar in Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences
Guru Nanak Dev University
Amritsar
Punjab,
India. Her areas of specialization are botany and environmental monitoring.


Ms. Sandeep Kaur
is currently working as Research Scholar in the Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences
Guru Nanak Dev University
Amritsar
India. She is pursuing her research on cancer chemopreventive potential of natural products.


Dr. Saroj Arora
is a Professor in the Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences
Guru Nanak Dev University
Amritsar
India. Her areas of expertise are natural plant products and environmental toxicology.


Dr. Satwinderjeet Kaur
is currently working as a Professor at Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences
Guru Nanak Dev University
Amritsar
India. Her areas of expertise are cancer chemoprevention and natural plant products.


Dr. Satyawati Sharma
is a Professor in the Centre for Rural Development and Technology
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas
New Delhi
India. She has a wide area of research including waste management, soil science and agronomy.


Savita
is an Assistant Professor in Botany Department
Hindu College, University of Delhi
New Delh
India. Her areas of expertise are plant tissue culture and plant pathology.


Ms. Sneh Rajput
is currently working as Research Scholar in the Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences
Guru Nanak Dev University
India.


Yadav Sonal
a Ph.D. Research Scholar in the Centre for Rural Development and Technology
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas
India.


Ms. Sukhjinder Kaur
is working in the Department of Microbiology
College of Basic Sciences and Humanities, Punjab Agricultural University
India.


Dr. Tajinder Kaur
is currently working as Assistant Professor, Crop Protection Division, Department of Agriculture
Khalsa College, Amritsar
India. Her areas of expertise are water quality management and abiotic stress management.


Dr. Trupti Patel
is an Associate Professor at Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT) in the department of Integrative Biotechnology
School of Bio Sciences and Technology (SBST)
India. She works in the area of cancer genetics, with an emphasis on cancer cytogenetics and molecular diagnostics. She also works on natural products to explore their potential as cancer therapeutic enhancers.


Dr. Vaneet Kumar
is a Research Scholar in Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences
Guru Nanak Dev University
Amritsar
Punjab,
India. His areas of specialization are genotoxicity evaluation and environmental toxicology.


Dr. Vanita Chahal
is currently working as an Assistant Professor at Department of Sciences
Kamla Nehru College for Women
Phagwara
Punjab,
India. Her areas of specialization are environmental genotoxicity, soil pollution, heavy metal contamination and multipesticide analysis.


Ms. Varinder Kaur
is currently working as Research Scholar in the Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences
Guru Nanak Dev University
Amritsar
India. She is pursuing her research on cancer chemopreventive potential of natural products.


Mr. Vivek Chopra
is an Assistant Professor in Botany Department
Hindu College, University of Delhi
New Delh
India. His areas of expertise are algal and environmental biotechnology.




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