Analytical Microextraction Techniques


M. Valcárcel, S. Cárdenas, R. Lucena

DOI: 10.2174/97816810837971170101
eISBN: 978-1-68108-379-7, 2016
ISBN: 978-1-68108-380-3

Indexed in: EBSCO.

Sample treatment has been the focus of intensive research in the last 20 years since it still remains a bottleneck in precise analytic...[view complete introduction]
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Green Microextraction

- Pp. 3-27 (25)

Sergio Armenta, Miguel de la Guardia and Jacek Namiesnik


In the present chapter, the microextraction techniques have been considered from the perspective of the Green Analytical Chemistry and an attempt has been made in order to propose a modified eco-scale suitable to provide a green certification of the extraction steps in the frame of the consideration of reagents and energy consumption and waste generation. Especially important is the evaluation of the intrinsic toxicity and risks associated to the use of reagents and the need of an accurate evaluation of the amounts of reagents and wastes in order to avoid misclassifications. It has been proposed a new eco-scale, called “Green Certificate”, based on the application of a color code associated to a letter; from A to G, being A the greenest one, that gives an idea of how much green an analytical methodology is. In short, it is evident that the microextraction enhances the method greenness providing class A steps in front of classical analytical preconcentration and matrix removal which changes the method category to class D.

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