Endocrine Disruptors: What Do We Know about the Effects and Risk Factors in Humans?
- Pp. 469-504 (36)Africa de Béjar-Almira, Alice Charlotte Viney and Marta M. Castañeda San Cirilo
In the last few decades, the theme of endocrine disruption and endocrine disrupting chemicals has become more and more relevant, raising alarm in the scientific community and amongst public health officials, as well as questioning the traditional concepts of toxicology. This chapter is a revision and summary of the latest information and articles concerning this subject. It discusses the terms and definitions of endocrine disruption, the sources and mechanisms of action of these chemicals both naturally and artificially made, reviewing the potential adverse development, reproductive, neurological, and immune effects that they can have on the different systems in the body, and how they can relate to the different epidemics of cancer, diabetes and obesity. It also provides the latest up-to-date information on the tests and methods used to detect and assess these entities, offering ideas and lines of future investigation to attempt to better understand the knowledge in this field and reduce the potential threat of these environmental hazards to mankind.